Toxin A Toxoid-187
Toxin A Toxoid was purified from Clostridium difficile.
A major nosocomial pathogen, Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated colitis and intestinal Inflammatory disease, together called CDI. By releasing two large protein enterotoxins, C. difficile Toxin A (TcdA) and C. difficile Toxin B (TcdB), Clostridium difficile mediates inflammatory diarrhea and compromises intestinal epithelial cells. Either toxin when administered to cultured cells disrupts the cytoskeleton and sets off capsase-dependent apoptosis, although, C. difficile Toxin B is many times more potent than C. difficile Toxin A. Both toxins also activate intestinal epithelial and immune cells to produce cytokines and chemokines, likely contributing to the complications associated with severe CDI. Intracellular targets of TcdA and TcdB are RhoGTPases which regulate many host cell processes including establishing an epithelial barrier and the migration and signaling of immune cells. When the Rho proteins are glycosylated by C. difficile Toxins A or B, signaling is disrupted leading to the intestinal damage and inflamation characteristic of CDI.
Each vial, when reconstituted with 100 ul of sterile purified water, contains 100 ug of toxoid in 0.1 M Histidine, 0.1 M Sodium Chloride, pH 6.5 with 5% Trehalose. Handle product gently, do not vortex.
Toxicity: Toxoid is produced from Toxin A of C. difficile by inactivation with formaldehyde. The resulting toxoid is essentially nontoxic. At 500.0 ug/ml, the toxoid has no detectable cytotoxicity in a cell rounding assay using human foreskin cells, when compared to Toxin A. At the highest dose tested (50.0 ug/mouse), mice injected intraperitoneally showed no toxic signs during the seven days of observation.
This product is supplied as a lyophilized powder, sealed under vacuum. Store at 2-8 centigrade prior to reconstitution. Aliquot and freeze this product to store following reconstitution.
Good laboratory technique should be employed in the safe handling of this product. This requlres observing the following practices:
1. Wear appropriate laboratory attire including a lab coat, gloves and safety glasses.
2. Do not mouth pipette, inhale, ingest or allow to come into contact with open wounds. Wash thoroughly any area of the body which comes into contact with the product.
3. Avoid accidental autoinoculation by exercising extreme care when handling in conjunction with any injection device.
4. This product is intended for research purposes by qualified personnel only. It is not intended for use in humans or as a diagnostic agent. Our company is not liable for any damages resulting from the misuse or handling of this product.