"Ascorbate" Related Products

L-Ascorbate Assay Kit

Cat.No.: Kit-0873
Description: L-Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), an anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger, is found ubiquitously in fruit and vegetables such as citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, limes, tangerines, etc.), melons, tomatoes, peppers, broccoli and green leafy vegetables such as spinach, potatoes and turnips. Its quantitative determination is especially important in the production of wine, beer, milk, soft drinks and fruit juices, where it can be a quality indicator. Given the essential role played in the human diet, L-ascorbic acid and salt derivatives are commonly used as food additives, with the additional advantage of their antioxidant and flavour enhancing properties. In the wine industry, L-ascorbic acid can be added to prevent oxidation of wine.
Size: Kits suitable for performing 40 assays in manual format (or 400 assays in auto-analyser format or 400 assays in microplate format).
Kit Components: Bottle 1: Buffer (44 mL, pH 5.6).
Stable for > 2 years at 4°C.
Bottle 2: MTT (18 mL, pH 3.5).
Stable for > 2 years in the dark at room temperature.
Bottle 3: (x2) PMS.
Stable for > 2 years in the dark at 4°C.
Bottle 4: Ascorbic acid oxidase suspension (0.85 mL).
Stable for > 2 years at 4°C.
Bottle 5: L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (~ 2 g).
Stable for > 2 years at 4°C.
Materials Required but Not Supplied: 1. Volumetric flasks (50 mL, 100 mL and 500 mL).
2. Disposable plastic cuvettes (1 cm light path, 3.0 mL).
3. Micro-pipettors, e.g. Gilson Pipetman (20 μL and 100 μL).
4. Positive displacement pipettor, e.g. Eppendorf Multipette®
- with 5.0 mL Combitip® (to dispense 0.2 mL aliquots of PMS solution, 0.2 mL of MTT Buffer solution and 0.5 mL of Buffer 1).
- with 25 mL Combitip® (to dispense 1.5 mL aliquots of distilled water).
5. Analytical balance.
6. Spectrophotometer set at 578 nm.
7. Vortex mixer (e.g. IKA® Yellowline Test Tube Shaker TTS2).
8. Stop clock.
9. Whatman No. 1 (9 cm) filter papers.
Preparation: PREPARATION OF REAGENT SOLUTIONS/SUSPENSIONS:
1. Use the contents of bottle 1 as supplied. Warm to ~ 37°C before use. Stable for > 2 years at 4°C.
2. Use the contents of bottle 2 as supplied. Store in the dark at room temperature between use. Stable for 2 years in the dark at room temperature.
3. Dissolve the contents of one of bottle 3 in 8.8 mL of distilled water. Do not dissolve the contents of the second bottle until required. Store in a dark container (as supplied) at 4°C between use. Stable for > 6 months at 4°C.
4. Use the contents of bottle 4 as supplied. Before opening for the first time, shake the bottle to remove any enzyme that may have settled on the rubber stopper. Swirl the bottle to mix contents before use. Subsequently, store the bottle in an upright position. Stable for > 2 years at 4°C.
5. Accurately weigh approx. 150 mg of L-ascorbic acid to the nearest 0.1 mg into a 100 mL volumetric flask. Fill to the mark with 3% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid plus 10 mM EDTA. Dilute an aliquot 1:10 (1 + 9) with 3% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid plus 10 mM EDTA buffer and mix thoroughly. This solution is stable for > 2 weeks at 4°C.
NOTE: The L-ascorbic acid standard solution is only assayed where there is some doubt about the accuracy of the spectrophotometer being used or where it is suspected that inhibition is being caused by substances in the sample. The concentration of L-ascorbic acid is determined directly from the extinction coefficient of MTT-formazan (page 6).
METAPHOSPHORIC ACID BUFFER:
To prepare 3% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid plus 10 mM EDTA dissolve 3.0 g of metaphopshoric acid in 80 mL of distilled water and add 10 mL of 100 mM EDTA solution. Make to 100 mL with distilled water and store at 4°C between use.
To make 100 mM EDTA, weigh 2.92 g of EDTA and add to approx. 80 mL of distilled water adjust pH to approx. 7 to dissolve the EDTA using 4 M NaOH and make to 100 mL.
SAMPLE PREPARATION:
1. Sample dilution.
The amount of L-ascorbic acid present in the cuvette (i.e. in the 0.1 mL of sample being analysed) should range between 0.5 and 30 μg. The sample solution must therefore be diluted sufficiently to yield an L-ascorbic acid concentration between 0.005 and 0.30 g/L.
Dilution Table
Estimated concentration Dilution with Dilution
of L-ascorbic acid (g/L) phosphate buffer factor (F)
< 0.3 No dilution required 1
0.3-3.0 1 + 9 10
3.0-30 1 + 99 100
> 30 1 + 999 1000
If the value of ΔAL-ascorbic acid is too low (e.g. < 0.100), weigh out more sample or dilute less strongly. Alternatively, the sample volume to be pipetted into the cuvette can be increased up to 1.50 mL, making sure that the sum of the sample and distilled water components in the reaction is 1.60 mL and using the new sample volume in the equation.
2. Sample clarification.
The Carrez-clarification protocol cannot be used in sample preparation for L-ascorbic acid determination due to the resultant low recovery of the analyte.
In place of Carrez-reagents, samples are clarified and protein is precipitated and removed by a combination of treatment with 3% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid plus 10 mM EDTA buffer and filtration. For the preparation of 3% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid plus 10 mM EDTA buffer.
3. General considerations.
(a) Liquid samples: clear, slightly coloured liquid samples can be used directly in the assay.
(b) Alkaline samples: if an alkaline sample is to be used undiluted, the pH of the solution should be adjusted to approx. 3.5 using 2 M HCl.
(c) Carbon dioxide: samples containing a significant amount of carbon dioxide, such as beer, should be degassed by filtration or by stirring with a glass rod.
(d) Coloured samples: lightly coloured samples can be analysed directly.
(e) Strongly coloured samples: if used undiluted, strongly coloured samples should be treated by the addition of 0.2 g of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP)/10 mL of sample. Shake the tube vigorously for 5 min and then filter through Whatman No. 1 filter paper.
(f) Solid samples: homogenise or crush solid samples in 3% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid plus 10 mM EDTA and filter if necessary.
(g) Samples containing fat: extract such samples with 3% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid plus 10 mM EDTA at a temperature above the melting point of the fat, e.g. in a 100 mL volumetric flask at 60°C. Cool to allow the fat to separate and make up to the mark with 3% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid plus 10 mM EDTA. Filter the solution, discard the first few mL of filtrate, and use the clear supernatant (which may be slightly opalescent) for assay.
(h) Samples containing protein: deproteinise samples containing protein by adding an equal volume 1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3.5) with mixing. Centrifuge at 1,500 g for 10 min and dilute with 3% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid plus 10 mM EDTA.
Assay Protocol: MANUAL ASSAY PROCEDURE:
Wavelength: 578 nm
Cuvette: 1 cm light path (glass or plastic)
Temperature: 37°C
Final volume: 2.52 mL
Sample solution: 0.5-30 μg of L-ascorbic acid per cuvette (in 0.1-1.5 mL sample volume)
Read against air (without a cuvette in the light path) or against water
For each sample, a sample blank must be performed.
Pipette into cuvettes Blank Sample
distilled water (warmed to ~ 37°C) 1.50 mL 1.52 mL
sample* 0.10 mL 0.10 mL
solution 1 (buffer) 0.50 mL 0.50 mL
suspension 4 (Ascorbic acid oxidase) 0.02 mL -
Mix**, and incubate for 3 min at 37°C. While incubating, mix the contents of the blank and sample assays every 1 min for about 5 s,
then add:
solution 2 (MTT buffer)*** 0.20 mL 0.20 mL
Mix**, and incubate for 2-3 min at 37°C. While incubating, mix the contents of the blank and sample assays every 1 min for about 5 s, then read the absorbances of the sample blank and sample (A1).
Start the reactions by addition of:
solution 3 (PMS) 0.20 mL 0.20 mL
Mix**, read the absorbances of the solutions (A2) immediately one after the other at the end of the reaction (approx. 8 min at 37°C).
* rinse the pipette tip with sample solution before dispensing the sample solution.
** for example with a plastic spatula or by gentle inversion after sealing the cuvette with a cuvette cap or Parafilm®.
*** the reaction mixture is sensitive to light after addition of solution 2 (MTT buffer). Avoid standing these cuvettes in the light.
NOTE: MTT and the reaction system containing MTT are sensitive to light. Consequently, reactions must be performed in the dark (e.g. in the spectrophotometer cuvette compartment with the photometer lid closed).
Analysis: CALCULATION:
Determine the absorbance difference (A2-A1) for both sample and sample blank. Subtract the absorbance difference of the sample blank from the absorbance difference of the sample, thereby obtaining ΔAL-ascorbic acid. The value of ΔAL-ascorbic acid should as a rule be at least 0.100 absorbance units to achieve sufficiently accurate results.
The concentration of L-ascorbic acid can be calculated as follows:
c =[(V × MW)/(ε× d × v)] × ΔA L-ascorbic acid [g/L]
where:
V = final volume [mL]
MW = molecular weight of L-ascorbic acid [g/mol]
ε = extinction coefficient of MTT-formazan at 578 nm = 16900 [l x mol-1 x cm-1]
d = light path [cm]
v = sample volume [mL]
It follows for L-ascorbic acid:
C=(2.52×176.13)/(16900×1.0×0.1)×ΔAL-ascorbic acid [g/L]=0.2626 ×ΔAL-ascorbic acid [g/L]
If the sample has been diluted during preparation, the result must be multiplied by the dilution factor, F.
When analysing solid and semi-solid samples which are weighed out for sample preparation, the content (g/100 g) is calculated from the amount weighed as follows:
Content of L-ascorbic acid = C L-ascorbic acid [g/L sample solution]/ weight sample [g/L sample solution] × 100 [g/100 g]
AUTO-ANALYSER ASSAY PROCEDURE:
NOTES:
1. All samples and standards must be tested with R1-Blank (with AAO) and R1-Sample (without AAO).
2. For each batch of samples that is applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid either a single point standard or a calibration curve must be performed concurrently using the same batch of reagents.
Reagent preparation is performed as follows:
Preparation of R1:
Component R1-Blank R1-Sample
distilled water 28.5 mL 28.9 mL
solution 1 (buffer) 10.0 mL 10.0 mL
solution 2 (MTT buffer) 4.0 mL 4.0 mL
suspension 4 (AAO) 0.4 mL -
Total volume 42.9 mL 42.9 mL
Preparation of R2:
Component Volume
distilled water 2.8 mL
solution 3 (PMS) 8.0 mL (after adding 8.8 mL of H2O to bottle 3)
Total volume 10.8 mL
EXAMPLE METHOD:
R1: 0.200 mL
Sample: ~ 0.01 mL
R2: 0.025 mL
Reaction time: ~ 8 min at 37°C
Wavelength: 578 nm
Prepared reagent stability: > 2 days when refrigerated
Calculation: endpoint
Reaction direction: increase
Linearity: up to 279 mg/L of L-ascorbic acid using 0.01 mL sample volume
MICROPLATE ASSAY PROCEDURE:
NOTES:
1. All samples and standards must be tested with AAO (Blank) and without AAO (Sample).
2. For each batch of samples that is applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid either a single point standard or a calibration curve must be performed concurrently using the same batch of reagents.
Wavelength: 578 nm
Microplate: 96-well (e.g. clear flat-bottomed, glass or plastic)
Temperature: ~ 37°C
Final volume: 0.252 mL
Linearity: 0.1-3 μg of L-ascorbic acid per well (in 0.01-0.2 mL sample volume)
Pipette into wells Blank Sample
distilled water 0.150 mL 0.152 mL
sample/standard solution*, 0.010 mL 0.010 mL
solution 1 (buffer) 0.050 mL 0.050 mL
suspension 4 (AAO) 0.002 mL -
Mix** intermittently for approx. 3 min then add:
solution 2 (MTT buffer)*** 0.020 mL 0.020 mL
Mix** intermittently for approx. 3 min then read the absorbances of the solutions (A1). Start the reactions by addition of:
solution 3 (PMS buffer) 0.020 mL 0.020 mL
Mix**, read the absorbances of the solutions (A2) at the end of the reaction (approx. 8 min).
* rinse the pipette/syringe with sample/standard solution before dispensing.
** for example using microplate shaker, shake function on a microplate reader, or repeated aspiration (e.g. using a pipettor set at 50 - 100 μL volume).
*** the reaction mixture is sensitive to light after additon of MTT.
CALCULATION (Microplate Assay Procedure):
g/L =(ΔAsample/ΔAstandard) ×g/L standard x F
If the sample is diluted during preparation, the result must be multiplied by the dilution factor, F.
Sensitivity: The smallest differentiating absorbance for the assay is 0.005 absorbance units, this corresponds to 0.088 mg/L of sample solution
at the maximum sample volume of 1.50 mL (or to 1.31 mg/L with a sample volume of 0.1 mL). The detection limit is 0.175 mg/L, which
is derived from an absorbance difference of 0.010 and the maximum sample volume of 1.50 mL. The assay is linear over the range of 0.5
to 30 μg of L-ascorbic acid per assay. In duplicate determinations using one sample solution, an absorbance difference of 0.005 to 0.010 may occur. With a sample volume of 1.50 mL, this corresponds to a L-ascorbic acid concentration of approx. 0.088 to 0.175 mg/L of sample solution. If the sample is diluted during sample preparation, the result is multiplied by the dilution factor, F. If, in sample preparation, the sample is weighed, e.g. 10 g/L, a difference of 0.02 to 0.05 g/100 g can be expected.

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