Histone Modification Table


Histone Methylation

Histone Modified Site Modifying Enzymes Proposed Functions
H1 Lys26 (H1K26) EZH2 transcriptional silencing
H2A Arg3 (H2AR3) PRMT1/6, PRMT5/7 transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression
H3 Arg2 (H3R2) PRMT5, PRMT6 transcriptional repression
Arg8 (H3R8) PRMT5 transcriptional repression
Arg17 (H3R17) CARM1 transcriptional activation
Arg26 (H3R26) CARM1 transcriptional activation
Arg42 (H3R42) CARM1 transcriptional activation
Lys4 (H3K4) SET1 (S. cerevisiae), SET 7/9 (vertebrates), MLL, ALL-1, ASH1 (D. melanogaster) permissive euchromatin (di-Me), transcriptional activation
Lys9 (H3K9) SUV39H, Clr4, G9a, SETDB1, Dim-5 (N. crassa), Kryptonite (A. thaliana), ASH1 (D. melanogaster) transcriptional silencing (tri-Me), genomic imprinting, transcriptional repression (tri-Me), DNA methylation (tri-Me), transcriptional activation
Lys27 (H3K27) EZH2, G9a transcriptional silencing, X inactivation (tri-Me)
Lys36 (H3K36) SET2 transcriptional activation (elongation)
Lys79 (H3K79) DOT1 Euchromatin, transcriptional activation (elongation), checkpoint response
H4 Arg3 (H4R3) PRMT1/6, PRMT5/7 transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression
Lys20 (H4K20) PR-SET7, SUV4-20H, ASH1 (D. melanogaster), SET9 (S. pombe) transcriptional silencing (mono-Me), heterochromatin (tri-Me), transcriptional activation, checkpoint response
Lys59 (H4K59) unknown transcriptional silencing

Histone Acetylation

Histone Modified Site Modifying Enzymes Proposed Functions
H2A Lys4 (H2AK4, S. cerevisiae) Esa1 transcriptional activation
Lys5 (H2AK5, Mammals) Tip60, p300/CBP transcriptional activation
Lys7 (H2AK7, S. cerevisiae) HAT1, Esa1 Unknown, transcriptional activation
H2B Lys5 (H2BK5) p300, ATF2 transcriptional activation
Lys11 (H2BK11, S. cerevisiae) GCN5 transcriptional activation
Lys12 (H2BK12, Mammals) p300/CBP, ATF2 transcriptional activation
Lys15 (H2BK15, Mammals) p300/CBP, ATF2 transcriptional activation
Lys16 (H2BK16, S. cerevisiae) GCN5, Esa1 transcriptional activation
Lys20 (H2BK20) p300 transcriptional activation
H3 Lys4 (H3K4, S. cerevisiae) Esa1, Hpa2 transcriptional activation
Lys9 (H3K9) GCN5, SRC-1, unknown transcriptional activation, histone deposition
Lys14 (H3K14) unknown, GCN5, PCAF, Esa1, Tip60, SRC-1, Elp3, Hpa2,
hTFIIIC90, TAF1, Sas2, Sas3,
p300
histone deposition, transcriptional activation, DNA repair, RNA polymerase transcription, euchromatin
Lys18 (H3K18) GCN5, p300/CBP transcriptional activation, DNA repair, DNA replication
Lys23 (H3K23) unknown, GCN5, Sas3, p300/CBP histone deposition, transcriptional activation, DNA repair
Lys27 (H3K27) p300/CBP transcriptional activation
Lys36 (H3K36) GCN5 transcriptional activation
Lys56 (H3K56, S. cerevisiae) Spt10 transcriptional activation, DNA repair
H4 Lys5 (H4K5) HAT1, Esa1, Tip60, ATF2, Hpa2, p300 histone deposition, transcriptional activation, DNA repair
Lys8 (H4K8) GCN5, PCAF, Esa1, Tip60, ATF2, Elp3, p300 transcriptional activation, DNA repair
Lys12 (H4K12) HAT1, Esa1, Tip60, Hpa2, p300 histone deposition, telomeric silencing, transcriptional activation, DNA repair
Lys16 (H4K16) GCN5, MOF (D. melanogaster), Esa1, Tip60, ATF2, Sas2 transcriptional activation, DNA repair, euchromatin
Lys91 (H4K91, S. cerevisiae) HAT1/HAT2 chromatin assembly

Histone Phosphorylation

Histone Modified Site Modifying Enzymes Proposed Functions
H1 Ser27 (H1S27) unknown transcriptional activation, chromatin decondensation
H2A Ser1 (H2AS1) unknown, MSK1 mitosis, chromatin assembly, transcriptional repression
Ser122 (H2AS122, S. cerevisiae) unknown DNA repair
Ser129 (H2AS129, S. cerevisiae) Mec1, Tel1 DNA repair
Ser139 (H2AS139, Mammalian H2A.X) ATR, ATM, DNA-PK DNA repair
Thr119 (H2AT119, D. melanogaster) NHK1 mitosis
Thr120 (H2AT120, Mammals) Bub1, VprBP mitosis, transcriptional repression
Thr142 (H2AT142, Mammalian H2A.X) WSTF apoptosis, DNA repair
H2B Ser10 (H2BS10, S. cerevisiae) Ste20 apoptosis
Ser14 (H2BS14, vertebrates) Mst1, unknown apoptosis, DNA repair
Ser33 (H2BS33, D. melanogaster) TAF1 transcriptional activation
Ser36 (H2BS36) AMPK transcriptional activation
H3 Ser10 (H3S10) Aurora-B kinase, MSK1, MSK2, IKK-α, Snf1 mitosis, meiosis, immediate-early gene activation, transcriptional activation
Ser28 (H3S28, Mammals) Aurora-B kinase, MSK1, MSK2 mitosis, immediate-early activation
Thr3 (H3T3) Haspin/Gsg2 mitosis
Thr6 (H3T6) PKCβI unknown
Thr11 (H3T11, Mammals) Dlk/Zip mitosis
Tyr41 (H3Y41) JAK2 transcriptional activation
Tyr45 (H3Y45) PKCδ apoptosis
H4 Ser1 (H4S1) unknown, CK2 mitosis, chromatin assembly, DNA repair

Histone Ubiquitylation

Histone Modified Site Modifying Enzymes Proposed Functions
H2A Lys119 (H2AK119, Mammals) Ring2 spermatogenesis
H2B Lys120 (H2BK120, Mammals) UbcH6 meiosis
Lys123 (H2BK123, S. cerevisiae) Rad6 transcriptional activation, euchromatin

Histone SUMOylation

Histone Modified Site Modifying Enzymes Proposed Functions
H2A Lys126 (H2AK126, S. cerevisiae) Ubc9 transcriptional repression
H2B Lys6 or Lys7 (H2BK6 or H2BK7, S. cerevisiae) Ubc9 transcriptional repression
H4 N-terminal tail (S. cerevisiae) Ubc9 transcriptional repression

Histone Biotinylation

Histone Modified Site Modifying Enzymes Proposed Functions
H2A Lys9 (H2AK9) biotinidase unknown
Lys13 (H2AK13) biotinidase unknown
H3 Lys4 (H3K4) biotinidase gene expression
Lys9 (H3K9) biotinidase gene expression
Lys18 (H3K18) biotinidase gene expression
H4 Lys12 (H4K12) biotinidase DNA damage response

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