Hormones can influence the health of our body at a low concentration and they are a relatively new class of environmental contaminants. Due to the ubiquitous nature of these compounds in everyday life and their potency at low concentrations, it is crucial to understand their chemical nature, source, effects on wildlife. Creative Biomart provides molecular tools for your research about hormones.
Source of natural hormones
Livestock. The major sources of the natural hormones in the environment are livestock wastes (e.g., urine and feces). About 49 tons of estrogens yr-1 and 4.4 tons androgens yr-1 were released into the environment through animal operations (e.g., cattle, pig, sheep, and chicken) in the USA in 2000.
Wildlife. Little is known about the contributions of natural sex hormones from wildlife. Kolodziej et al. (2003) reported that about 1x10-3 µg L-1 of estrogens (i.e., estrone) and androgens (i.e., testosterone and androstenedione) were detected in fish hatchery effluents. The concentration of hormones in urine and feces varied also with different reproductive cycles. Fiefl et al. (1999) reported concentrations of hormones excreted from Africa elephants (Loxodonta africana), and found that 0.01-0.05 µg mg-1 creatinine of estrone and 0.01-0.09 µg mg-1 creatinine of 17β-estradiol were detected in the feces and urine of during the preconception period, respectively. The level of these two estrogens remained stable during the first 30 weeks of gestation; however, the concentrations of both hormones dramatically increased to 0.4-0.8 µg mg-1 around 40-50 weeks gestation. These hormone concentrations then gradually declined until birth. Pickard et al. (2001) also reported that the 0.30 Mg of progestagen were excreted from 1 g of dry faeces of female Mohor gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) during inter-luteal of oestrous cycle, compared to 2.06 µg of progestagen during the luteal phase of oestrous cycle.
Humans. Other major sources of natural hormones in the environment are human wastes. Several researches have reported that 1.6 µg day-1 of 17β-estradiol and 3.0-3.9 µg day-1 of estrone were excreted in the urine of males, compared to 3.5 µg day-1 of 17β-estradiol and 7.0-8.0 µg day-1 of estrone for females. During pregnancy, however, estrogen concentrations increase where 259 µg day-1 of 17β-estradiol and 600 µg day-1 of estrone are excreted in the urine of pregnant women.