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Neurodegenerative Disease

Neurodegenerative Disease Background

About Neurodegenerative Disease

Neurodegenerative Disease - Creative BioMart

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons in the brain and spinal cord. These diseases primarily affect older individuals and are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Some common neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Each of these diseases has distinct characteristics and symptoms, but there are some commonalities among them.

One key feature of neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the brain. These proteins can form clumps or aggregates that disrupt normal cellular function and lead to cell death. In Alzheimer's disease, for example, beta-amyloid plaques and tau tangles accumulate in the brain, leading to memory loss and cognitive decline.

Another shared characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases is the progressive nature of the disorders. Symptoms typically start mild and worsen over time as more neurons are affected. This can result in the loss of motor function, cognitive abilities, and eventually, death.

The exact causes of neurodegenerative diseases are not fully understood, but both genetic and environmental factors play a role. In some cases, mutations in specific genes can increase the risk of developing these diseases. Environmental factors such as exposure to toxins or certain lifestyle choices, like diet and exercise, may also influence disease onset and progression.

Currently, there is no cure for neurodegenerative diseases, and treatments are mainly focused on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression. Research is ongoing to better understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and develop more effective therapies.

Common Neurodegenerative Disease and Major Related Molecules

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS):

  • Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1): Mutations in the SOD1 gene are associated with some cases of familial ALS. SOD1 is an enzyme that plays a role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. Mutant SOD1 can lead to the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates and contribute to motor neuron degeneration.
  • TAR DNA-binding Protein 43 (TDP-43): TDP-43 is a protein involved in RNA processing and regulation. In ALS, TDP-43 is often found in abnormal aggregates within motor neurons. Dysfunctional TDP-43 can disrupt cellular processes and contribute to neuronal degeneration.

Alzheimer's Disease:

  • Amyloid-beta (Aβ): Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques, primarily composed of Aβ peptides, in the brain. Aggregated Aβ peptides are believed to contribute to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer's disease.
  • Tau Protein: In Alzheimer's disease, abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein leads to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles within neurons. These tangles disrupt neuronal function and contribute to progressive cognitive impairment.

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy:

  • Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs): In diabetic peripheral neuropathy, high blood sugar levels can lead to the formation of AGEs, which contribute to nerve damage and impaired nerve function.
  • Protein Kinase C (PKC): PKC is an enzyme involved in various cellular signaling pathways. In diabetic neuropathy, activation of PKC is implicated in nerve damage and changes in nerve function.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Myelin-related Molecules:

  • Myelin Basic Protein (MBP): MBP is a protein found in the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates nerve fibers. In MS, the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages myelin, including MBP, leading to demyelination and impaired nerve function.
  • Proteolipid Protein (PLP): PLP is another protein found in the myelin sheath. Mutations in the PLP1 gene can lead to dysmyelination disorders, such as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, which affects the formation and maintenance of myelin.

Parkinson's Disease-related Molecules:

  • Alpha-synuclein: Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is abundant in the brain, particularly in presynaptic terminals. In PD, alpha-synuclein undergoes abnormal folding and aggregation, forming clumps known as Lewy bodies. These aggregates are a hallmark pathological feature of PD and are thought to contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cell death.
  • Dopamine: Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating movement, motivation, and reward. In PD, the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons leads to a depletion of dopamine, resulting in the characteristic motor symptoms of the disease.

Understanding the roles and dysregulation of these molecules in their respective neurodegenerative diseases provides insights into the underlying mechanisms, potential biomarkers, and therapeutic targets. Further research is ongoing to explore these molecules and develop interventions that could help manage these neurodegenerative diseases more effectively.

Research Tools for Neurodegenerative Disease

Creative BioMart offers a diverse array of products, services, and resources tailored to bolster research on molecules like neurodegenerative disease.

  • Varied Product Lines: Our selection includes recombinant proteins, cell and tissue lysates, protein pre-coupled beads, antibodies, and a portfolio of other products, all designed to elevate the success of your experiments.
  • Tailored Services: Count on our skilled scientific team, equipped with extensive experience and expertise, to customize specific proteins, antibodies, or experimental protocols based on your unique needs, ensuring that your research requirements are met.
  • Comprehensive Resource Support: Beyond product provision, we extend extensive resource support. Access pathways, protein functionalities, interacting proteins, and pertinent articles associated with neurodegenerative disease, elevating your comprehension and research into the functions and regulatory mechanisms of these crucial molecules.

Our Advantages

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If you have inquiries or an interest in these products and services, please get in touch with us, and our dedicated customer service team will be delighted to assist you. We eagerly anticipate the opportunity to connect with you!


  1. Wood-Kaczmar A, Gandhi S, Wood NW. Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease. Trends Mol Med. 2006;12(11):521-528.


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