SARS-CoV-2 Proteins and Their Target Proteins
The COVID-19 outbreak has caused large numbers of death, as well as social and economic chaos worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 virus is the causative agent of this respiratory disease.
The scientific community has known that SARS-CoV-2 binds to host cell receptors through its surface spike (S) proteins and is endocytosed into cells through clathrin-mediated membrane fusion. The relationship and affinity between the host cell receptor and the virus surface protein determine the infectivity and cytophilic characteristics of the virus. The pathogenicity and invading of the virus are related to the type and function of the host cell. Crystal structure analysis confirmed that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 S protein, and the affinity of the two is 10-20 times that of SARS-CoV and ACE2, which is the reason of SARS-CoV-2 super infectivity.
So far, no clinically available antiviral drugs have been developed for SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, or MERS-CoV. Some studies used affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis that have identified hundreds of protein interactions between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human proteins, including DNA replication (Nsp1), epigenetic and gene expression regulators (Nsp5, Nsp8, Nsp13, E), vesicle trafficking (Nsp6, Nsp7, Nsp10, Nsp13, Nsp15, Orf3a, E, Orf8), lipid modification (Spike), RNA processing and regulation (Nsp8, N), ubiquitin ligases (Orf10), signaling (Nsp8, Nsp13, N, Orf9b), nuclear transport machinery (Nsp9, Nsp15, Orf6), cytoskeleton (Nsp1, Nsp13), mitochondria (Nsp4, Nsp8, Orf9c), and extracellular matrix (Nsp9). Results from data analysis suggested that the viral proteins connect to a wide array of biological processes, including protein trafficking, translation, transcription, and ubiquitination regulation.
A total of 332 high confidence SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been identified. Among these, using a combination of a systematic chemoinformatic drug search with a pathway centric analysis, researchers have uncovered 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by close to 70 different drugs and compounds, including FD A approved drugs, compounds in clinical trials as well as preclinical compounds. Additionally, this proteomic/chemoinformatic analysis gives these potential therapeutic perturbations a mechanistic context.
Creative BioMart has collected many SARS-CoV-2 related proteins and druggable target proteins, which can help you discover antiviral therapies against SARS-CoV-2 and other deadly coronavirus strains.
For more protein product information or custom protein expression service, please feel free to contact us.
Featured Interaction Proteins
|AXL-535H||Ala26-Pro440||Recombinant Human AXL protein, His-tagged (Active)||AXL-His||Human||HEK293|
|AXL-536H||Ala26-Pro440||Recombinant Human AXL protein, Fc-tagged||AXL-Fc||Human||HEK293|
|AXL-770H||Ala26-Pro449||Recombinant Human AXL protein, His-tagged||AXL-His||Human||HEK293|
|AXL-585H||Ala26-Pro449||Recombinant Human AXL protein, His-Avi-tagged||AXL-His-Avi||Human||HEK293|
|AXL-584HB||Ala26-Pro449||Recombinant Human AXL protein, His-Avi-tagged, Biotinylated||AXL-His-Avi-Biotin||Human||HEK293|
|AXL-249H||473-end||Recombinant Human AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, His-tagged, Active||AXL-His||Human||Sf 9 Insect cells|
|AXL-36H||464-885(end)||Recombinant Human AXL protein, Flag-tagged, Biotinylated||AXL-Flag||Human||Insect cells|
|ACE2-736H||Recombinant Human ACE2, His-tagged||ACE2-His||Human||HEK293|
|ACE2-68H||Recombinant Human ACE2, Fc-tagged||ACE2-hFc||Human||HEK293|
|ACE2-185H||Recombinant Human ACE2, mouse IgG1 Fc-tagged||ACE2-mFc||Human||HEK293|
|TMPRSS2-1856H||Recombinant Human TMPRSS2 Protein (106-492 aa), His-tagged||TMPRSS2-His||Human||Yeast|
|TMPRSS2-4899H||Recombinant Human TMPRSS2, his-tagged||TMPRSS2-His||Human||HEK293|
|ACE2-229H||Recombinant Human ACE2 protein, His/Avi-tagged||ACE2-His/Avi||Human||Mammalian cells|
Recently, South Africa has detected a new mutant of the Sars-CoV-2-B.1.1.529. The World Health Organization (WHO) included B.1.1.529 on the Variant of Concern (VOC), named Omicron.
B.1.1.529 contains at least 50 mutations, 30 of which are on the spike protein (S protein). Not surprisingly, spike protein has become the research and development target of most vaccines. Some of the mutations are known to affect infectivity and immune escape, while others are newly identified. It is currently unknown what will happen when these mutations combine and their effects on the Sars-CoV-2 vaccine.
Creative BioMart is still committed to overcoming the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. We have just added a new panel of mutant RBD/spike and nucleocapsid proteins. In addition to the Omicron variant, Creative BioMart also provides other COVID variants (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Eta, Iota, Kappa, and Lambda). We will continue to update our catalog to include new mutant proteins. Please contact us for more information.
According to the new statistics from the WHO, there are 147 vaccine projects in various stages of development worldwide for the COVID19, of which 18 have entered clinical trials.
Coronavirus uses its spike glycoprotein (S), a main target for neutralization antibody, to bind to its receptor, and mediate membrane fusion and virus entry. Its receptor binding domain (RBD) has a high affinity with the ACE2 receptor protein on the surface of human cells. The S protein is an ideal entry point for vaccine design. The neutralizing antibody binds to the viral S protein RBD to competitively block the virus binding to the ACE2 protein and infect cells, achieving the effect of immune prevention and even treatment.
We can now offer mutant spike RBD proteins, which are thermally stable and can produce antibodies with neutralizing activity. We will continue to work together with the worldwide scientists to find the path forward for today’s challenges, and to support tomorrow’s breakthroughs.
NRP1: Another Target for SARS-CoV-2?
The global spread of COVID19 continues unabated. Compared with the SARS virus 17 years ago, SARS-CoV-2 is more contagious, and the scope and severity of the new coronavirus far exceed the SARS epidemic in 2003. Considering there are no significant differences in the binding affinity constants of ACE2 and RBD, it is not possible to fully explain the reason why the infection and transmission capacity of the new crown has increased compared with SARS. Therefore, binding of SARS-CoV-2’s Spike protein to host ACE2 triggers viral entry, but other proteins may participate.
New research found that neuropilin-1 (NRP1), known to bind furin-cleaved substrates, significantly potentiates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Pathological analysis of human COVID-19 autopsies revealed SARS-CoV-2 infected cells including olfactory neuronal cells facing the nasal cavity positive for NRP1. X-ray crystallography, antibody blocking, and other biochemical approaches show that the S1 CendR motif directly bound NRP1. Blocking this interaction using RNAi or selective inhibitors reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry and infectivity in cell culture. Thus NRP1 may potentially provide a therapeutic target for COVID-19.
Creative BioMart provides high-quality labeled NRP1 proteins. For more protein product information or custom protein expression service, please feel free to contact us. Together we will win the fight!
|NRP1-2065H||Recombinant Human NRP1 protein, His-tagged||hNRP1-His||HEK293|
|NRP1-3346H||Recombinant Human NRP1 protein, Fc-tagged||hNRP1-hFc||HEK293|
|NRP1-8119H||Recombinant Human NRP1 protein, His & Avi-tagged, Biotinylated||hNRP1-His-Avi-Biotin||HEK293|
|NRP1-329M||Recombinant Mouse NRP1 protein, Mouse IgG2a Fc-tagged, low endotoxin||mNRP1-mFc||HEK293|
|NRP1-1218C||Recombinant Cynomolgus NRP1 Protein, His-tagged||cNRP1-His||HEK293|
|NRP1-157C||Recombinant Cynomolgus NRP1, Fc tagged||cNRP1-hFc||HEK293|
|NRP1-158C||Recombinant Cynomolgus NRP1, LEVLFQ tagged||cNRP1||HEK293|
Customized expression service of mutant SARS-CoV-2 protein
A terrible mutant strain of the new coronavirus was discovered in the United Kingdom. The binding affinity of the S protein to the human ACE2 receptor has increased by 1,000 times, and the transmission speed is as high as 70% compared with the previous strain; it soon became the main strain in the London area. This new strain has 23 special mutations and is named subtype B.1.1.7.
Estimates suggest that circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages accumulate nucleotide mutations at a rate of about 1-2 mutations per month. The B.1.1.7 lineage carries a larger than the usual number of virus genetic changes. The accrual of 14 lineage-specific amino acid replacements prior to its detection is, to date, unprecedented in the global virus genomic data for the COVID-19 pandemic.
The epidemiological significance of the replication characteristics, transmission characteristics, and impact on vaccination of this B.1.1.7 strain is still unclear. In addition to the obvious increase in the spread of the new strain, there are other dangers waiting to be verified.
Virus mutation is a natural phenomenon that has always occurred. The new coronavirus mutant strain will cause the speed of transmission to increase, which may be due to the increased binding affinity of the mutant virus strain S protein to the human ACE2 receptor. The mutation helps the virus escape the host's immune response, and also leads to antigen drift, making the COVID-19 as difficult to prevent as flu.
Creative BioMart provides customized expression services, especially for mutant SARS-CoV-2 protein. Single mutant, multiple mutants, deletion, or insert mutant can be customized according to customer requirements. We currently have a batch of RBD mutant products (Find product information on RBD Mutant Proteins). If the mutant you need is not on the product list, you can contact us for inquiries or customize it as required.
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