Stem Cells

Stem Cells Background

About Stem Cells

Stem cells (SC) are a class of cells with self-renewing ability and multidirectional differentiation potential, which can differentiate into a variety of functional cells under certain conditions. Simply put, stem cells are primitive and unspecialized cells that are not fully differentiated and have the potential to regenerate various tissues and organs. Stem cells are present in all multicellular tissues and are capable of dividing into a variety of specialized cells through mitosis and differentiation, and can use self-renewal to provide additional stem cells.

According to the developmental stage of stem cells, they are divided into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and somatic stem cells. According to their developmental potential, stem cells are divided into three categories: totipotent stem cells (TSCs), pluripotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells. According to the function of adult stem cells, they can be classified into neural stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, skin stem cells, adipose stem cells and so on.

Usually, the sources of stem cells are embryos, bone marrow, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and cord blood. For hematopoietic stem cells, in terms of transplantation methods, they can be subdivided into autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplants; autologous stem cell transplants are commonly used due to the lack of rejection. However, in addition to hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) do not show rejection in allogeneic transplantation. This is because MSCs rarely express MHCII molecules and co-stimulatory factors, and to a lesser extent MHCI molecules, which results in the inability to activate T-lymphocytes, and thus escape the attack of the immune system.

Applications of Stem Cells

  • Regenerative Medicine

Because of their ability to replace damaged or diseased cells and promote tissue repair, stem cells are being investigated as potential therapies for a wide range of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and organ/tissue damage.

  • Drug Discovery and Development

Stem cells are currently one of the primary tools for studying disease progression and testing the efficacy and safety of new drug candidates, and high-quality stem cell lines and differentiated cells can be used for drug screening and toxicity studies.

Stem cells can be differentiated into specific cell types affected by a variety of diseases, enabling researchers to model and study these diseases in a controlled laboratory environment. This approach provides valuable insights into disease mechanisms and facilitates the development of targeted therapies.

Stem Cells.

Challenges to Stem Cell Therapy

Clinical translation of stem cell technology still faces challenges, such as:

  • Whether prolonged in vitro operations such as cell isolation, purification, and expansion will cause changes in biological potency such as proliferative ability, immunomodulation, differentiation potential, as well as telomerase, karyotype, and proto-oncogenes.
  • How to determine the survival rate and biological efficacy of stem cell products during their preservation, transportation, resuscitation and preparation.
  • Stem cell transplantation may also bring some side effects, such as cardiopulmonary dysfunction, metabolic and endocrine disorders, concurrent infections, and even tumor diseases. It is difficult to guarantee the safety and effectiveness of stem cell transplantation technology if it has not passed rigorous clinical trial reviews and is not properly utilized under strict supervision.
  • The concept of stem cells is very large, except for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation which has been in clinical use for more than half a century, curing tens of thousands of leukemia patients, and the technology is becoming more mature, the other areas are still in the stage of experimental and clinical research globally, and a lot of issues, including safety, are still to be further studied.

Research Tools for Stem Cells

Creative BioMart is a leading company specializing in life sciences research tools and services, providing researchers with a wide range of products, customized services, and resources related to stem cells to meet their customers' research needs. Please click to view all related molecules/targets and research reagents.

We hope we can provide you with valuable insights into research in the stem cell field, for more information or inquiries, please feel free to contact us.

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