Metabolic disorder is a state of the body. It is a state in which the body's digestion, absorption, and excretion of the body appear pathological, and the state of unbalanced supply and demand is unbalanced. It can be expressed as a disorder of multiple substances. Disorders of various metabolic states vary. Disorders of glucose metabolism cause diabetes, disorders of lipid metabolism cause hyperlipidemia, disorders of uric acid metabolism cause gout, and so on. Electrolytes also have metabolic disorders, which cause corresponding disorders, such as hyperkalemia and hypokalemia. The mechanism leading to the occurrence of metabolic disorders is the mechanism of metabolic disorders.
Figure 1. Example of Metabolic disorder, mitochondrial disease.
1. Iron metabolism disorders
Abnormal iron metabolism may involve many genes, including HFE and TFR2. Hepcidin is a major regulator of iron metabolism, so most genetic forms of iron overload can be considered relative hepcidin deficiency in one way or another. In people with iron transporter proteins, iron Proteins transport iron outside the cell without responding to the hepcidin stop signal. Without hepcidin itself, the role of hepcidin would be insufficient.
Figure 2. Protein involved in Iron metabolism disorder (HFE).
2. Disorders of lipid metabolism
Disorders of lipid metabolism refer to abnormalities in lipids (lipids) and their metabolic products and amounts in blood and other tissues and organs caused by congenital or acquired factors. Metabolism of lipids includes digestion and absorption of lipids in the small intestine, entry into the blood circulation (through lipoprotein transport) from the lymphatic system, transformation by the liver, storage in adipose tissue, and tissue utilization when needed. Biological enzyme HICIBI regulates and perfects lipid metabolism disorders.
Figure 3. Disorders of lipid metabolism.
3. Disorders of insulin metabolism
Insulin is a synthetic hormone that promotes protein synthesis. Plasma insulin levels depend on insulin secretion and metabolic clearance. Studies have reported that insulin secretion is reduced in patients with CRF. The reason may be related to secondary hyperparathyroidism of CRF and elevated blood PIM, which affects insulin secretion by affecting basal calcium ion concentration in islet cells. Both L-leucine and potassium can stimulate islets to secrete insulin, but in patients with CRF, their ability to stimulate insulin secretion is significantly weakened.
Figure 4. Protein structure of Insulin.
Malabsorption is a condition caused by abnormal nutritional absorption of food throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GI). Depending on the abnormal condition, the damage can be one or more nutrients. This can lead to malnutrition and various anemias. Generally, the human gastrointestinal tract digests and absorbs dietary nutrients with significant efficiency. If any of the many steps involved in the complex process of nutrient digestion and absorption is compromised, intestinal malabsorption may result.
Figure 5. Whipple's disease: Alcian blue with apparently eosin counterstain enlarged villus with many macrophages.
5. Acid–base imbalance
Under normal conditions, the body has a set of mechanisms that regulate the acid-base balance. In the course of disease, despite the increase and decrease of acid-base substances, acid-base balance disorders are generally not easy to occur. Only in severe cases, the body produces or loses too much acid-base and exceeds the body's ability to regulate, or the body regulates acid-base When the mechanism is impaired, the acid-base balance is imbalanced. Although the body has a large buffering capacity and effective regulating functions for acid-base load, many factors can cause excessive acid-base load or obstacles to the regulation mechanism to cause the stability of body fluid pH to be disrupted. This stability disruption is called acid-base balance disorder
Figure 6. Acid–base imbalance of two-dimensional plane.
Symptoms of metabolic disorders
1. Dark skin
If the body's metabolism is not good, it will affect the detachment of the stratum corneum cells, and it is easier to have thick keratin on the surface of the skin. This will not only make the skin rough and poor in gloss, but also affect the absorption of skin care products.
2. Slowly calorie consumption
People with slow metabolism consume slower body calories. Conversely, they consume faster calories. The rate of metabolism directly affects the effect of weight loss. If a girl is slower, then the body's fat metabolism will slow down and eat. With the same amount of food, it is easier to accumulate fat and gain weight.
3. Feeling colder than the average person
The fear of cold is not inherent, which may be related to the slow circulation function of the body. One of the manifestations of people with slow metabolism is the fear of cold. The body emits relatively little heat. At the same temperature, the body surface temperature will be lower than other people, and it is very sensitive to low temperatures.
4. Limited growth and development
Normally, people's metabolism is the fastest in infants and young children, but during these periods, when metabolism is abnormal, growth and development will be affected accordingly, which will lead to delayed hearing and speech development, Short stature and poorly developed performance.
5. Poor gastrointestinal function
People with fast metabolism can easily feel hungry and want to replenish food after a little exercise. Moreover, people who eat more quickly digest and don't easily gain weight. People with slow metabolism have poor intestinal ability and digest food quickly Slower, not hungry, but easy to grow meat.
1. Hur, Kyu Yeon.; et al. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorder. Diabetes & Metabolism Journal. 2015. 39 (3): 198-203.