Pancreas development Proteins

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Pancreas development Proteins

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Pancreas development Proteins Background

The pancreas is a long and narrow gland that lies horizontally on the plane of the lumbar vertebral body at the back wall of the abdomen. The texture is soft and gray-red. The pancreas can be divided into four parts: the head, neck, body, and tail. The pancreatic duct is located in the parenchymal parenchyma, and its walking is consistent with the long axis of the pancreas. It travels from the tail of the pancreas to the head of the pancreas, receives many interlobular ducts along the way, and finally merges with the common bile duct in the landing wall of the duodenum to form the liver. The ampulla of the pancreas enters the large duodenal nipple. A small tube is sometimes seen in the upper part of the pancreatic head, which runs above the pancreatic duct, is called the parapancreatic duct, and opens in the small duodenal papilla. The pancreas is divided into two parts: exocrine glands and endocrine glands. Exocrine glands are composed of acinar and glandular ducts, which secrete pancreatic juice, which is the channel through which pancreatic fluid is excreted. Pancreatic juice contains sodium bicarbonate, trypsinogen, lipase, and amylase. Pancreatic juice is excreted into the duodenum through the pancreatic ducts and has the effect of digesting proteins, fats and sugars.

The Pancreas. Figure 1. The Pancreas.

Functions

The pancreas is a small, inconspicuous organ deep in the upper abdomen of our body. Although the pancreas is small, it has an extraordinary effect. It is one of the important organs in the human body. Because it is an exocrine gland, its physiological effects and pathological changes are closely related to life. The pancreas is "secluded" behind the peritoneum. In this way, it is less well-known than the stomach, duodenum, liver, and gall, but the digestive enzymes in pancreatic juice secreted by the pancreas play a "leading role" in the process of food digestion. The main component of exocrine is pancreatic juice, which contains alkaline bicarbonate and various digestive enzymes. Its main function is to neutralize gastric acid and digest sugar, protein and fat.

Pancreas Development Proteins

The pancreas secretes included trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic amylase, pancreatin.

Trypsin

Trypsin is a kind of protease, which is a serine proteolytic enzyme extracted from the pancreas of cattle, sheep and pigs. It functions as a digestive enzyme in vertebrates. After the trypsinogen, which is the precursor of trypsin, is synthesized in the pancreas, it is secreted as a component of pancreatic juice and is decomposed into activated trypsin by the restriction of enterokinase or trypsin. The carboxyl side of the lysine and arginine residues is cleaved. It not only plays the role of digestive enzymes, but also restricts the decomposition of precursors of other enzymes, such as chymotrypsinogen, carboxypeptidase, and phospholipase, and activates it. It is the most specific protease, and it becomes an indispensable tool in determining the amino acid arrangement of proteins.

Protein structure of Trypsin. Figure 2. Protein structure of Trypsin.

Chymotrypsin

Chymotrypsin is a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the pancreas, which can rapidly degrade denatured proteins. Its function and use are similar to trypsin, which is stronger than trypsin, has lower decomposition ability, lower toxicity and less adverse reactions. Chymotrypsin is widely used and can still be used in the treatment of sprains, otitis media, rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and lung abscess. It can be used for surgical inflammation, trauma, hematoma and abscess, etc. It can also be used for tracheotomy. Chymotrypsin has a better effect on patients with sputum and makes sputum easier to cough.

Protein structure of Chymotrypsin. Figure 3. Protein structure of Chymotrypsin.

Pancreatic amylase

Pancreatic amylase is a hydrolase secreted by the pancreas that can hydrolyze α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. It belongs to α-amylase. Alpha-amylase is widely distributed in animals, plants and microorganisms. Almost all microbial enzymes are secreted. This enzyme takes Ca2+ as an essential factor and acts as a stabilizing factor, acting on both amylose and amylopectin, and cutting α-1,4-chain indiscriminately. Therefore, it is characterized by a sharp decrease in the viscosity of the substrate solution and the disappearance of the iodine reaction. The final product is mainly maltose when decomposing amylose.

Protein structure of Pancreatic amylase. Figure 4. Protein structure of Pancreatic amylase.

Pancreatin enzymes

Pancreatin enzymes is used to treat malabsorption syndrome due to certain pancreatic problems. It mainly contains trypsin, pancreatic amylase, and pancreatic lipase. Trypsin can convert protein into peptone, pancreatic amylase converts starch into dextrin and sugar, and pancreatic lipase decomposes fat into glycerin and fatty acid. Strong activity under neutral or weak alkaline conditions. Digestion of starch, protein and fat in the intestinal fluid, thereby promoting digestion and appetite.

Protein structure of Pancreatic amylase. Figure 5. Protein structure of Pancreatic amylase.

Reference:

  1. Verspohl EJ.; et al. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat pancreatic islets: binding and functional studies. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1990, 178 (3): 303–11.

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