Somite Markers Proteins

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Somite Markers Proteins

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Somite Markers Proteins Background

During the development of vertebrates, the division of embryos is reflected in the appearance of somites. The ventral segment is a pair of bilateral, repeating units of mesoderm-derived tissue that develop along the meso- posterior axis and along the flanks of the chordola. Each somite consists of two main regions, and the cellular composition of these regions varies. The cells in the ventral portion undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition to form the sclerotome, which gives rise to the vertebrae and ribs. The dorsal area of each arthropod contains a dermatomyostomy, which causes skeletal muscle and dermis. The so-called " segmentation clock " regulates somatic development, which is an oscillation of molecular events driven by FGF, Notch, and Wnt signaling in precocious mesoderm cells. Somatic defects are associated with birth disorders such as scoliosis.

FGF

There are several isomers of fibroblast growth factor (FGF). The main role in arteriosclerosis is bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor). bFGF can be secreted by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and macrophages. Its role is to promote the migration of endothelial cells and the proliferation of smooth muscle cells, but not to allow smooth muscle cells to migrate. Can promote the formation of new blood vessels and repair damaged endothelial cells. FGF is considered to be a factor for promoting formation of lesions, but it also has a positive side from a repair perspective.

Structure of the FGF12 protein. Figure 1. Structure of the FGF12 protein.

Functions

1. Effect on the skeletal system: promote the generation of a large number of osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts. Treatment of osteoporosis, femoral head necrosis, arthritis, rheumatism and diseases caused by calcium deficiency.

2. Effect on digestive system: strengthen gastrointestinal function, promote the decomposition of digestive enzymes, increase appetite, and treat chronic gastritis.

3. Effect on the blood system: strengthen the bone marrow hematopoietic function, promote the generation of stem cells, and then generate a large number of red blood cells and white blood cells. Strengthen left ventricular thickness, increase myocardial elasticity, and effectively treat heart disease. Effectively remove low-density proteins in the blood, prevent deposition on the wall of blood vessels, and treat blood.

Notch signaling

The Notch gene encodes a class of highly conserved cell surface receptors that regulate the development of various biological cells, from sea urchins to humans. Notch signal affects many processes of normal cell morphogenesis, including differentiation of pluripotent progenitor cells, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and formation of cell boundaries. Phenotypic changes caused by mutations in Notch loci indicate the diversity of Notch signaling effects. It regulates the differentiation and development of cells, tissues and organs through the interaction between adjacent cells. The Notch cascade consists of Notch and Notch ligands, as well as intracellular proteins that transmit Notch signaling to the nucleus. The Notch/Lin-12/Glp-1 receptor family was found to be involved in the regulation of cell fate during the development of Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. When puberty is reached, the Notch signaling pathway begins to inhibit new cell growth and stabilize the adult neural network.

Notch protein pathway. Figure 2. Notch protein pathway.

Wnt signaling

The Wnt signaling pathway is a set of multiple downstream channels that is triggered by the binding of the ligand protein Wnt to membrane protein receptors. Through this pathway, extracellular signals are transmitted into the cell through the activation process of the intracellular segment of the cell surface receptor. Wnt is an acronym for genetics and stands for "Wingless / Integrated". The Wnt signaling pathway presents two types of signaling between cells: intercellular communication (paracrine) or autologous cell communication (autocrine). Wnt signaling pathways are highly genetically conserved among animals and are very similar among different animal species.

In 1982, the Wnt gene was first discovered in mouse breast cancer. Because this gene activation relies on the insertion of mouse breast cancer-associated virus genes, it was named the Int1 gene at that time. Subsequent studies have shown that the Int1 gene plays an important role in normal mouse embryonic development, and similar to the function of the fruit fly's Wingless gene, it can control the axial development of the embryo.  Subsequent studies have suggested the importance of the Int1 gene in embryonic development of the nervous system. Because of the similarity of gene and protein functions between the two, the researchers merged Wingless and Int1 and named it Wnt gene. The human Wnt gene is located at 12q13. In embryonic development, the important signaling systems regulated by Wnt genes are collectively referred to as the Wnt pathway.

Crystal protein structure of Wnt8. Figure 3. Crystal protein structure of Wnt8.

Reference:

  1. Nusse R.; et al. A new nomenclature for int-1 and related genes: the Wnt gene family. Cell. 64 (2): 231.

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