What are tumor markers?
Tumor markers are a kind of active substance produced by the interaction between tumor tissue or host and tumor, which can indicate the existence and growth of the tumor. Tumor markers often exist in serum, cells, urine, body fluids or tissues, such as carcinoembryonic proteins, tumor antigens, enzyme markers, hormones, sugar antigens and so on.
Fig 1. Commonly Used Tumor Markers
What is a biomarker?
Biomarker is the abbreviation of "biological marker". It can be used as an objective Biomarker is the abbreviation of "biological marker". It can be used as an objective measurement and to mark the normal or abnormal development process, symptoms or diseases. In the field of oncology, the example of a biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to cancer. It can help clinicians identify early cancer, predict the extent of cancer invasion, or infer the extent to which patients respond to treatment. Some biomarkers used to detect the presence of cancer or to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment include AFP, for liver cancer, BCR-ABL, for chronic myeloid leukemia, and CA-125, for ovarian cancer and CEA for colorectal cancer. Biomarkers are also used to predict or monitor cancer recurrence.
Fig 2. Common Causes of Elevation of Tumor Marker Levels
Tumor biomarker protein
Tumor markers represent a subset of biomarkers that indicate cancer growth. Most of these markers are produced by normal cells and tumor cells. However, in patients with a variety of malignant tumors, their levels are usually significantly higher in body fluids such as urine saliva or blood. There have been more than 70 tumor suppressors identified to date of varying importance. Some are lost late in tumorigenesis and are considered to be passenger mutations, those that confer little or no survival advantage to an existing cancer. Other tumor suppressors are lost at the incipient stages of tumor neogenesis, this loss being crucial for the evolution from normal cell to cancer cell. These driver mutations occur in tumor suppressors that act as sentinels, each protecting the integrity of cellular processes crucial to maintaining a normally functioning cell. These are the major tumor suppressors. The traditional single factor detection method has been unable to meet the increasing screening needs of scientists, and high-throughput detection tools can detect a variety of proteins or analytes at the same time to achieve the purpose of high-throughput screening and quantitative analysis. It is widely used in early screening of disease markers. Proteins can be used as tumor biomarkers in cancer research applications, Creative BioMart can provide you with these molecular tools.