Total cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death, in the United States and worldwide, and roughly 1 out of 3 Americans has a degree of CVD. Total CVD is defined as having at least one of the following conditions: coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and disease of the arteries. While the slight majority of CVD cases occur in the population aged >60 years, an almost equal incidence of CVD occurs in the younger population. This incidence among younger Americans contributes to the anticipated increased prevalence of CVD over the next decade. Concordant with the overall CVD prevalence and mortality rate, these increases are expected to be more dramatic in distinct populations, including rural populations and geographic areas with low socioeconomic status. Aside from the high mortality rate and social burden of CVD, the financial burden associated with treating CVD is currently nearly 320 billion dollars per year and is expected to increase to 918 billion dollars annually by year 2030.
Atherosclerosis results from the progressive long-term combination of atherogenesis, the accumulation of modified lipoproteins within blood vessel walls, along with vascular and systemic inflammatory processes. The management of atherosclerosis is challenged by the localized flare-up of several multipronged signaling interactions between activated monocytes, atherogenic macrophages and inflamed or dysfunctional endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis, resulting from systemic lipid burden, can lead to vascular occlusions including intracranial, coronary and peripheral. This thesis advances a new approach founded on multifocal, targeted therapies that seek to reverse or ameliorate the atheroinflammatory cascade within the vascular intima.
Stroke represents 16 percent of total CVD cases, and approximately 6.6 million people worldwide have had a stroke, with roughly 800,000 new strokes occurring annually in the US. The prevalence of stroke has been reported to range from 6-28%, and this wide range is likely due to both unreported cases and unclear diagnosis of stroke. Similar to CVD, the prevalence of stroke is expected to increase by 20.5 percent by year 2030. When considered independent of CVD, stroke is currently the fifth leading cause of death in the US and second leading cause of death worldwide, and while the mortality rate of stroke has decreased over the past decade, the number of people living with stroke is expected to increase, making stroke a leading cause of long-term disability in the US. Considered together, the total financial cost of treating stroke is expected to increase from the current $71.6 billion to $184.1 billion dollars spent annually on stroke care, and a large proportion of these funds are due to rehabilitation costs.
As a primary manufacturer of recombinant proteins, Creative Biomart provides recombinant proteins of several sources, grades and formulations for cardiovascular disease research applications as therapeutic targets.
Cardiovascular Disease reference
Mozaffarian, D., et al., Heart disease and stroke statistics--2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2015. 131(4): p. e29-322.