Chondrogenesis Markers Proteins

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Chondrogenesis Markers Proteins

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Chondrogenesis Markers Proteins Background

Cartilage protein cartilage tissue exists in many parts of the body, hyaline cartilage is the main form of cartilage. Cartilage tissue exists in many parts of the body, hyaline cartilage is the main form of cartilage, and is commonly found in the skeletal system, such as the osteogenesis initiation stage of embryos, growth plates that guide bone growth during juvenile individual development, and the osteochondral load bearing surface Wait. All hyaline cartilage contains a large number of characteristic substances proteoglycan (PG), which mainly exists in the form of a proteoglycan polymer synthesized by hyaluronic acid and connexin. The cartilage swells in cartilage through its permeability. Resists compressive forces on cartilage. Since the mid-1980s, the degradation mechanism of proteoglycans in cartilage damage has been a research hotspot. Proteoglycans are a class of glycoproteins composed of a variety of long-chain amino polysaccharides connected to a protein core. As such glycoproteins, the sugar content is much higher than the protein content.

Composition

The useful composition in cartilage are mainly hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and collagen in cartilage.

  1. Hyaluronic acid

    Hyaluronic acid is an acidic mucopolysaccharide. With its unique molecular structure and physicochemical properties, hyaluronic acid displays a variety of important physiological functions in the body, such as lubricating joints, regulating the permeability of blood vessel walls, regulating proteins and water Electrolyte diffusion and operation promote wound healing. It is particularly important that hyaluronic acid has a special water retention effect and is currently the best moisturizing substance found in nature. It is called an ideal natural moisturizing factor.

    Chemical structure of hyaluronic acid. Figure 1. Chemical structure of hyaluronic acid.
  2. Chondroitin sulfate (CS)

    CS is widely found in human and animal cartilage tissue. Its medicinal preparation mainly contains two isomers of chondroitin sulfate A and chondroitin sulfate C. The content of chondroitin sulfate in the cartilage of animals of different breeds and ages is different. Its pharmacological effects are:

    1. CS can remove lipids and lipoproteins from blood in the body, remove cholesterol from blood vessels around the heart, prevent atherosclerosis, and increase the conversion rate of lipids and fatty acids in cells.

    2. CS can effectively prevent coronary heart disease. It has anti-atherosclerosis and anti-atherogenic plaque formation effects on experimental atherosclerosis models; it can increase the coronary arterial division or collateral circulation of atherosclerosis, and can accelerate the experimental Healing, regeneration and repair of myocardial necrosis or degeneration.

    3. It can increase the biosynthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cells and has the effect of promoting cell metabolism.

    4. Low anticoagulant activity. Chondroitin sulfate has a mild anticoagulant effect. Chondroitin sulfate A per lmg is equivalent to the anticoagulant activity of 0.45U heparin. This anticoagulant activity does not depend on antithrombin III to function, it can exert anticoagulant activity through the fibrinogen system.

    5. Chondroitin sulfate also has anti-inflammatory, accelerated wound healing and anti-tumor effects.

    Chemical structure of chondroitin sulfate. Figure 2. Chemical structure of chondroitin sulfate.
  3. Collagen

    Collagen is a biopolymer, the main component in connective tissue of animals, and the most abundant and widely distributed functional protein in mammals, accounting for 25% to 30% of the total protein. In some organisms, it can even reach 80%. Because collagen has good biocompatibility, biodegradability and biological activity, it has been widely used in food, medicine, tissue engineering, cosmetics and other fields.

    Collagen. Figure 3. Collagen.

Chondrogenesis Markers Proteins

Chondrogenesis, the formation of cartilage is important for the biological processes of cartilage bone formation, bone formation, and tissue composition. This dynamic cellular event leads to the formation of clear, fibrous and elastic cartilage. Chondrocytes differentiate after agglomeration of mesenchymal stem cells and are responsible for secreting extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen and proteoglycans. The transcription factor SOX9 is essential for the differentiation and function of chondrocytes. The fact that heterozygous mutations in the SOX9 gene cause severe skeletal deformity syndrome, called Campo type dysplasia, highlights the importance of SOX9 in cartilage formation.

SOX9 gene

SOX-9 plays an important role in chondrocyte differentiation and works with steroidogenic factor 1 to regulate the transcription of the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) gene. In addition, SOX-9 also plays a key role in male sexual development. By working with Sf1, SOX-9 can produce AMH in Sertoli cells, thereby inhibiting the establishment of female reproductive systems. It also interacts with several other genes to promote the development of male sex organs.

Protein structure of SOX9 gene. Figure 4. Protein structure of SOX9 gene.

Reference:

  1.  De Santa Barbara P.; et al. Direct interaction of SRY-related protein SOX9 and steroidogenic factor 1 regulates transcription of the human anti-Müllerian hormone gene. Molecular and Cellular Biology.1998, 18 (11): 6653–65.

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