Ectoderm Marker Proteins

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Ectoderm Marker Proteins

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Ectoderm Marker Proteins Background

The ectoderm is one of the three germ layers of a developing animal embryo. It is the first layer that appears during the gasification process. The ectoderm is the outermost layer. The ectoderm contains cells that continue to form the immune system, including the spine, peripheral nerves, and brain. Ectodermal cells also contribute to the formation of skin cells in the epidermis and pigment cells. The ectodermal lineage markers are used to study ectodermal cells and determine which cells will enter where the organs and tissues are formed. These markers help to map the stages of ectoderm differentiation during development. The ectodermal lineage includes oligodendrocytes, type 1 and type 2 astrocytes, and neuronal progenitor cells.

Organs derived from ectoderm. Figure 1. Organs derived from ectoderm.

Ectoderm Marker Proteins

The anti-pax3 antibody binds to the target PAX3 (paired box protein 3). PAX3 acts as a transcription factor involved in the development of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. The paired box protein 3 is located in the nucleus. The defect of PAX3 is the cause of Waardenburg syndrome, craniofacial hand rub syndrome and rhabdomyosarcoma. Wadenburg syndrome is a genetic syndrome with multiple related defects. The Wadenburg syndrome is characterized by partial albinism, wide eyes and deafness. Craniofacial handcuff syndrome is characterized by unique facial features, hearing loss and hand abnormalities. The affected person's facial contour is flat, split like a nostril, and hearing loss. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that attaches to the bones inside the muscles. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare cancer that is treated by radiation or chemotherapy or a combination of both.


The human PAX3 gene is located in the 2q36.1 chromosomal region and contains 10 exons in the 100 kb region. PAX3 acts as a transcriptional activator of most target genes, but may also inhibit a smaller subset of target genes. These expression changes are achieved by the combination of PAX3 with specific recognition sites located at different genomic locations. Some of the binding sites are located in or near the target gene, such as the 5' promoter, the first intron, and the 3' untranslated region. A large number of PAX3 binding sites are located at large distances upstream and downstream of the target gene. Among the PAX3 target genes, one group is involved in muscle development and the other group is involved in nerve and melanocyte development. The proteins encoded by these target genes regulate various functional activities in these lineages, including differentiation, proliferation, migration, adhesion, and apoptosis.

Structure of the PAX3 gene. Figure 2. Structure of the PAX3 gene.

The anti-FGFR2 antibody binds to the target fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. FGFR2 is a receptor for acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is located on the cell membrane of the cell and is also secreted. Defects in FGFR2 are the cause of Kluy's syndrome, Apot's syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, and familial head syndrome. Crouzon syndrome, also known as the branch arch syndrome, is a hereditary disease in which some of the skulls fuse together prematurely, preventing normal double skull growth. Individuals with the disease have distinct facial features, such as enlarged bees, nose tips and underarms. Apert syndrome, similar to Crouzon syndrome. This is a hereditary disease that causes the skull to close earlier than normal and affect the shape of the head and face. Affected people may also have fused fingers and fused toes. Facial and cranial symptoms of Pfeiffer and Syndrome are also similar to Crohn's syndrome and branch arch syndrome.


FGFR2 plays an important role in embryonic development and tissue repair, particularly in bones and blood vessels. Like other members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, these receptors signal by their ligand binding and dimerization (receptor pairing), causing the tyrosine kinase domain to initiate a cascade of intracellular signals. These signals mediate cell division, growth and differentiation at the molecular level.

Structure of the FGFR2 gene. Figure 3. Structure of the FGFR2 gene.


  1. Soleimani VD.; et al. Transcriptional dominance of Pax7 in adult myogenesis is due to high-affinity recognition of homeodomain motifs. Developmental Cell. 2012,22 (6): 1208–20.
  2. Orr-Urtreger A.; et al. Developmental localization of the splicing alternatives of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2. Developmental Biology. 1993,158 (2): 475–86.

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