Heart disease is a more common type of circulatory system disease. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and neurohumoral tissues that regulate blood circulation. Circulatory system diseases are also known as cardiovascular diseases, including diseases of all the above-mentioned tissues and organs. They are common diseases in medical diseases, and heart disease is most common. Can significantly affect the workforce of patients. There are many types of heart disease that affect different parts of the organ and occur in different ways.
Congenital heart disease
This is a general term for certain heart malformations that have occurred since birth. include:
Septal defect: There is a hole between the two cavities of the heart.
Obstruction defect: Blood flowing through various chambers of the heart is partially or completely blocked.
Cyanosis: A heart defect causes hypoxia in the body.
Figure 1. The normal structure of the heart (left) in comparison to two common locations for a ventricular septal defect (right), the most common form of congenital heart defect.
There are several ways a heartbeat can lose its regular rhythm. These include: tachycardia, bradycardia, and arrhythmias occur when the electrical heartbeats that coordinate the heartbeat do not work properly. These should make the heart beat in some way, whether it's too fast, too slow, or too unstable.
Figure 2. Ventricular fibrillation.
Coronary artery disease
The coronary arteries provide nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle by circulating blood. Coronary arteries often become diseased or damaged due to the deposition of cholesterol-containing plaque. Plaque buildup narrows the coronary arteries, which reduces the oxygen and nutrients the heart receives.
Figure 3. Coronary artery disease.
Due to myocardial weakness, the heart cavity is dilated and blood cannot be pumped normally. The most common cause is the inability of oxygen to reach the heart muscle due to coronary artery disease. This usually affects the left ventricle.
Figure 4. Mouse heart slice showing effects of a mutation that causes Cardiomyopathy dilated.
This is also known as a heart attack, myocardial infarction, and coronary thrombosis. Interrupted blood flow can damage or destroy parts of the heart muscle. This is usually caused by a blood clot that forms in one of the coronary arteries, and can also occur if the arteries suddenly narrow or cramp.
Figure 5. Myocardial infarction.
Heart failure occurs when the heart cannot effectively pump blood around the body. The left or right side of the heart may be affected. Rarely, both sides are. Over time, coronary artery disease or high blood pressure can make the heart too stiff or weak to fill and pump properly.
Figure 6. Model of a normal heart, with contracted muscle (left); and a weakened heart, with over-stretched muscle (right).
This is a genetic disease with thickened left ventricular walls that make it difficult to draw blood from the heart. This is the main cause of sudden deaths of athletes. Parents with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a 50% chance of transmitting the disease to their children.
Figure 7. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Also called mitral regurgitation, mitral regurgitation or mitral regurgitation, this can happen when the mitral regurgitation in the heart is not tight. This allows blood to flow back to the heart when it should be gone. As a result, blood cannot pass efficiently through the heart or body.
Figure 8. Mitral Regurgitation scheme.
Because the pulmonary valve is too tight, it is difficult for the heart to pump blood from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery. The right ventricle must work harder to overcome the obstruction. Severely narrow babies will turn blue. Older children usually have no symptoms.
Certain types of heart disease, such as those that occur at birth, cannot be prevented. However, other types can be prevented by taking the following measures:
Eat a balanced diet. Stick to low-fat, high-fiber foods and make sure to eat five servings of fresh fruits and vegetables daily. Increase whole grain intake and reduce salt and sugar in your diet. Make sure that most of the fat in your diet is unsaturated.
Exercise regularly. This will strengthen the heart and circulatory system, lower cholesterol, and maintain blood pressure.
Maintain your healthy weight. Click here to calculate your current and target body mass index (BMI).
If you smoke, quit. Smoking is a major risk factor for heart and cardiovascular disease.
Reduce alcohol intake. Do not drink more than 14 units a week.
Controlling complications can affect heart health conditions, such as high blood pressure or diabetes.
Although these steps do not completely eliminate the risk of heart disease, they can help improve overall health and greatly reduce the chance of heart complications.
Metabolism in Heart disease
Heart failure (HF) is associated with metabolic changes that cause progressive damage to the energetic phosphate produced by the heart and skeletal muscle. Due to impaired heart metabolism, other processes of heart failure are activated, which further exacerbates the process of HF. The reduction of high-energy phosphate production is significant for both systolic and diastolic phases of HF, while retaining and reducing left ventricular function. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest technology on HF metabolic therapy, especially trimetazidine. Metabolic drugs optimize heart substrate metabolism without negative hemodynamic effects. In particular, as studies on metabolic factors regulating cardiac metabolism have consistently shown, this approach can effectively improve the symptoms, functional capacity, and prognosis of patients with heart failure when added to optimal drug therapy. Therefore, the regulation of cardiac metabolism is an important treatment for HF, especially in patients with ischemic or metabolic origin.
Figure 9. Cardiac Metabolism pathways.
1. Yamazaki N.; et al. Cardiac catecholamine metabolism in heart failure. Japanese Circulation Journal. 1971, 35(8):965-71.