• Official Full Name

    aldo-keto reductase family 1, member D1 (delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5-beta-reductase)

  • Overview

    The enzyme encoded by this gene is responsible for the catalysis of the 5-beta-reduction of bile acid intermediates and steroid hormones carrying a delta(4)-3-one structure. Deficiency of this enzyme may contribute to hepatic dysfunction. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Other variants may be present, but their full-length natures have not been determined yet.
  • Synonyms

    AKR1D1; aldo-keto reductase family 1, member D1 (delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5-beta-reductase); SRD5B1; 3-oxo-5-beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenase; 3o5bred; AK1D1_HUMAN; aldo keto reductase family 1 member D1 (delta 4 3 ketosteroid 5 beta reductase); Aldo keto reductase family 1 member D1; Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member D1; CBAS2; Delta(4) 3 ketosteroid 5 beta reductase; Delta(4) 3 oxosteroid 5 beta reductase; Delta(4)-3-ketosteroid 5-beta-reductase; Delta(4)-3-oxosteroid 5-beta-reductase; steroid 5 beta reductasebeta polypeptide 1 (3 oxo 5 beta steroid delta 4 dehydrogenase beta 1); steroid 5 beta reductase; OTTHUMP00000208643; OTTHUMP00000208644; OTTHUMP00000208645; steroid-5-beta-reductase, beta polypeptide 1 (3-oxo-5 beta-steroid delta 4-dehydro;

  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Cell & Tissue Lysates
  • Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads
  • Chicken
  • Human
  • Mouse
  • Rat
  • E.coli
  • HEK293
  • HEK293T
  • Human
  • In Vitro Cell Free System
  • Mammalian Cell
  • Wheat Germ
  • GST
  • His
  • His (Fc)
  • Avi
  • Myc
  • DDK
  • N/A
Species Cat.# Product name Source (Host) Tag Protein Length Price
Human AKR1D1-28H Recombinant Human AKR1D1 protein E.coli N/A
Human AKR1D1-1674H Recombinant Human Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member D1 (Delta 4-3-Ketosteroid-5-Beta-Reductase), His-tagged Human His
Human AKR1D1-417H Recombinant Human AKR1D1 Protein, GST-tagged Wheat Germ GST
Human AKR1D1-3463H Recombinant Human AKR1D1 protein, His-tagged E.coli His
Human AKR1D1-8928HCL Recombinant Human AKR1D1 293 Cell Lysate HEK293 N/A
Human AKR1D1-1375HF Recombinant Full Length Human AKR1D1 Protein, GST-tagged In Vitro Cell Free System GST 326 amino acids
Mouse AKR1D1-1504M Recombinant Mouse AKR1D1 Protein Mammalian Cell His
Mouse AKR1D1-440M-B Recombinant Mouse AKR1D1 Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads HEK293
Mouse AKR1D1-440M Recombinant Mouse AKR1D1 Protein, His (Fc)-Avi-tagged HEK293 His (Fc)-Avi
Mouse Akr1d1-1583M Recombinant Mouse Akr1d1 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged HEK293T Myc/DDK
Rat AKR1D1-601R Recombinant Rat AKR1D1 Protein Mammalian Cell His
Rat AKR1D1-257R-B Recombinant Rat AKR1D1 Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads HEK293
Rat AKR1D1-257R Recombinant Rat AKR1D1 Protein, His (Fc)-Avi-tagged HEK293 His (Fc)-Avi
Chicken AKR1D1-4802C Recombinant Chicken AKR1D1 Mammalian Cell His
  • Involved Pathway
  • Protein Function
  • Interacting Protein
  • Other Resource

AKR1D1 involved in several pathways and played different roles in them. We selected most pathways AKR1D1 participated on our site, such as Primary bile acid biosynthesis, Steroid hormone biosynthesis, Metabolic pathways, which may be useful for your reference. Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with AKR1D1 were listed below. Creative BioMart supplied nearly all the proteins listed, you can search them on our site.

Pathway Name Pathway Related Protein
Primary bile acid biosynthesisSLC27A5;AKR1D1;HSD17B4;CH25H;BRSK2;SCP2A;BAAT;CYP39A1;CH25HL1.2
Steroid hormone biosynthesisCYP21A1;HSD17B12B;SULT2ST3;UGT2A1;CYP7A1A;HSD17B2;SRD5A3;HSD3B5;HSD17B12A

AKR1D1 has several biochemical functions, for example, delta4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase activity, steroid binding. Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by AKR1D1 itself. We selected most functions AKR1D1 had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with AKR1D1. You can find most of the proteins on our site.

Function Related Protein
delta4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase activityAKR1C3;AKR1D1
steroid bindingFAM84B;NR3C1;ESR1;PGRMC1;PAQR7A;ESRRGA;HSD17B10;Ar;CYP21A2

AKR1D1 has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. Those interactions were detected by several methods such as yeast two hybrid, co-IP, pull-down and so on. We selected proteins and molecules interacted with AKR1D1 here. Most of them are supplied by our site. Hope this information will be useful for your research of AKR1D1.

Research Area

Related articles

Yanagi, T; Mizuochi, T; et al. Distinguishing primary from secondary Delta(4)-3-oxosteroid 5 beta-reductase (SRD5B1, AKR1D1) deficiency by urinary steroid analysis. CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY 82:346-351(2015).
Yang, F; He, YQ; et al. All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis. BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY 91:483-489(2014).
  • Q&As
  • Reviews

Q&As (23)

Ask a question
Are there any other known functions of AKR1D1 protein? 12/26/2022

Besides its role in bile acid synthesis, AKR1D1 protein has been implicated in the metabolism of other steroids, such as androgens and estrogens. It also has a potential role in protecting against oxidative stress and inflammation, although further research is needed to understand these functions fully.

Are there any known diseases or disorders associated with AKR1D1 protein dysfunction? 11/19/2022

Yes, mutations or deficiencies in the AKR1D1 gene can lead to bile acid synthesis defects, such as primary bile acid malabsorption (PBAM) and bile acid synthesis defects type 2 (BASD2). These conditions are characterized by impaired bile acid metabolism and can result in symptoms such as chronic diarrhea and malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

Can AKR1D1 protein be used as a diagnostic marker? 09/13/2022

AKR1D1 protein is not commonly used as a diagnostic marker on its own. However, genetic testing for mutations in the AKR1D1 gene can be used to confirm a diagnosis of bile acid synthesis defect type 2 (BASD2) in individuals with suspected deficiencies in bile acid synthesis.

Are there any ongoing clinical trials targeting AKR1D1 protein? 07/28/2022

Currently, there are no clinical trials specifically targeting AKR1D1 protein. However, some clinical trials may indirectly investigate the effects of AKR1D1 modulation by assessing the efficacy of drugs that interact with the bile acid pathway, which AKR1D1 is involved in.

Are there any diseases associated with AKR1D1 protein mutations? 07/10/2022

Yes, mutations in the AKR1D1 gene can lead to a rare autosomal recessive disorder known as bile acid synthesis defect type 2 (BASD2). In individuals with BASD2, there is a deficiency of AKR1D1 activity, resulting in impaired bile acid synthesis and accumulation of toxic intermediates, leading to liver and other systemic complications.

Is there any ongoing research on developing AKR1D1 protein as a drug target? 02/21/2022

While there is ongoing research on AKR1D1 as a potential drug target, it is still in the early stages. Scientists are exploring the development of AKR1D1 inhibitors for the treatment of bile acid-related disorders and investigating its role in other diseases. The potential therapeutic applications of AKR1D1 targeting are an active area of ongoing investigation.

Does AKR1D1 protein have any physiological or pharmacological inhibitors? 06/28/2021

There are currently no specific physiological or pharmacological inhibitors that are commonly used to directly target AKR1D1 protein. However, as mentioned earlier, some compounds have shown inhibitory effects on AKR1D1 activity in experimental studies. More research is needed to develop potent and specific inhibitors for therapeutic use.

How does AKR1D1 protein contribute to bile acid synthesis? 04/21/2021

AKR1D1 protein is a key enzyme involved in bile acid synthesis. It catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol to 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrol, a key step in bile acid biosynthesis. This product is subsequently converted into primary bile acids, such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. AKR1D1 is essential for the conversion of intermediates in the bile acid synthesis pathway and ensures the proper production of bile acids necessary for digestion and other physiological functions.

Are there any natural compounds or dietary factors that can modulate AKR1D1 protein activity? 12/01/2020

Some studies have suggested that certain natural compounds or dietary factors may influence AKR1D1 activity. For example, it has been reported that certain phytochemicals found in plants, such as curcumin and resveratrol, can modulate AKR1D1 expression or activity. Additionally, high fiber diets have been shown to increase AKR1D1 expression in animal models. However, the specific mechanisms by which these compounds or dietary factors affect AKR1D1 activity are still not fully understood and require further investigation.

Are there any known interactions of AKR1D1 protein with other proteins or enzymes? 09/29/2020

AKR1D1 protein is known to interact with other enzymes involved in bile acid synthesis, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. These interactions are important for the sequential enzymatic reactions required for bile acid production. Additionally, AKR1D1 may interact with other proteins involved in cellular signaling or regulation, although the specific interactions are not well characterized.

Can AKR1D1 protein be targeted for the treatment of cholestasis or other liver diseases? 08/21/2020

Yes, targeting AKR1D1 protein could potentially be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of cholestasis and other liver diseases. AKR1D1 plays a key role in bile acid synthesis, and disruptions in bile acid metabolism are often associated with liver diseases such as cholestasis. By modulating AKR1D1 activity or expression, it may be possible to restore proper bile acid homeostasis and alleviate symptoms associated with liver dysfunction. However, more research is needed to fully understand the implications and potential of targeting AKR1D1 for liver disease treatment.

Does AKR1D1 protein have any isoforms? 02/14/2020

Yes, alternative splicing of the AKR1D1 gene can produce multiple isoforms of AKR1D1 protein, although the significance of these isoforms is not well understood.

Are there any inhibitors or activators of AKR1D1 protein currently in development? 12/20/2019

There have been a few studies exploring the development of AKR1D1 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for bile acid-related disorders. For example, the compound 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-position-d-glucose has shown inhibitory effects on AKR1D1 activity. However, more research is needed to develop and evaluate these inhibitors for clinical use.

Can variations in the AKR1D1 gene affect drug response? 02/03/2018

It is possible that genetic variations in the AKR1D1 gene could impact drug response, particularly in medications that are metabolized by AKR1D1. However, more research is needed to understand the clinical significance of such variations and their effects on drug efficacy and toxicity.

Is AKR1D1 protein involved in any metabolic pathways besides bile acid synthesis? 10/03/2017

AKR1D1 protein plays a crucial role in the synthesis of primary and secondary bile acids, which are essential for lipid digestion and absorption. However, recent studies have also suggested potential involvement of AKR1D1 in other metabolic pathways, such as steroid hormone metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. Further research is needed to fully understand these additional metabolic functions of AKR1D1.

Are there any known AKR1D1 protein polymorphisms or variants? 09/23/2017

Yes, several variants of the AKR1D1 gene have been identified in different populations. Some of these variants are associated with bile acid-related disorders, such as primary bile acid malabsorption (PBAM) and bile acid synthesis defects type 2 (BASD2). These genetic variations can affect AKR1D1 protein function and lead to impaired bile acid metabolism. Understanding these polymorphisms and variants is important for assessing individual susceptibility to bile acid-related disorders and optimizing personalized treatment strategies.

How is AKR1D1 protein regulated in the body? 05/26/2017

The regulation of AKR1D1 protein expression and activity is not fully understood. However, several factors have been shown to influence AKR1D1 expression. For example, feedback regulation by bile acids themselves can affect AKR1D1 expression levels. Transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR), is also known to play a role in regulating AKR1D1 expression. Furthermore, studies have suggested that epigenetic modifications and post-translational modifications may also contribute to the regulation of AKR1D1.

Where is AKR1D1 protein found? 03/10/2017

AKR1D1 protein is primarily found in the liver, where it is involved in bile acid synthesis. It is also present in other tissues to varying degrees, including the intestine, kidney, and adrenal glands.

How is AKR1D1 protein regulated? 01/27/2017

The expression and activity of AKR1D1 protein can be regulated by various factors. One important regulator is the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which can bind to the promoter region of the AKR1D1 gene and stimulate its transcription. Other factors, such as hormonal signaling and dietary factors, can also influence AKR1D1 expression and activity.

Can AKR1D1 protein be used as a biomarker for certain diseases? 12/02/2016

While AKR1D1 protein itself is not commonly used as a biomarker, alterations in AKR1D1 activity or mutations in the AKR1D1 gene can be indicative of certain diseases, such as bile acid synthesis defects or potential metabolic disorders. Therefore, measuring AKR1D1 activity or analyzing AKR1D1 gene variants may have diagnostic value in specific contexts.

What are the potential therapeutic uses of targeting AKR1D1 protein? 09/25/2016

Targeting AKR1D1 protein could have therapeutic implications in the treatment of bile acid-related disorders, such as primary bile acid malabsorption. Additionally, modulating AKR1D1 activity may have potential applications in the management of metabolic disorders and certain cancers. However, more research is needed to explore these potential therapeutic uses in detail.

Is AKR1D1 protein expression altered in any diseases or conditions? 09/14/2016

AKR1D1 expression can be altered in various diseases and conditions. For instance, studies have shown that AKR1D1 expression is significantly reduced in patients with primary bile acid malabsorption (PBAM) and bile acid synthesis defects type 2 (BASD2), which are bile acid-related disorders. Additionally, abnormal AKR1D1 expression has been observed in certain types of cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. These findings suggest that dysregulation of AKR1D1 expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases.

Is AKR1D1 protein targeted for therapeutic interventions? 07/09/2016

Yes, AKR1D1 protein is a potential therapeutic target for bile acid-related disorders. Inhibitors of AKR1D1 have been studied as a means to modulate bile acid synthesis and potentially treat conditions such as cholestasis, gallstone disease, and certain metabolic disorders.

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