Lipoprotein is biochemical assembly particles that contain both proteins and lipids with a phospholipid molecules layer outside. The hydrophobic lipids are surrounded by hydrophilic proteins and that makes it possible to carry lipids in water environment such as blood. There are many kinds of lipoproteins, for example, some enzymes, transmembrane proteins, antigens and so on. Plasma lipoproteins are most common lipoproteins. One role of plasma lipoproteins is to carry lipids/fats to where they are store or used. These lipoproteins can be divided into several classes based on their density, including chylomicrons, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). The liver is the main organ to deal with triacylglycerol and cholesterol and synthesis of lipoproteins.
To our knowledge, lipoproteins have important roles in cardiovascular diseases. The high levels of LDL, VLDL and triglyceride are related to a high risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease. However, HDL can reduce the level of cholesterol leading a lower cardiovascular risk.
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Lipoprotein related literatures
1. Gordon T, Castelli W P, Hjortland M C, et al. High density lipoprotein as a protective factor against coronary heart disease: the Framingham Study[J]. The American journal of medicine, 1977, 62(5): 707-714.
2. Miller G J, Miller N E. Plasma-high-density-lipoprotein concentration and development of ischaemic heart-disease[J]. The lancet, 1975, 305(7897): 16-19.
3. Hokanson J E, Austin M A. Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a metaanalysis of population-based prospective studies[J]. Journal of cardiovascular risk, 1996, 3(2): 213-219.