• Official Full Name

    chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16

  • Overview

    Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16), also known as SR-PSOX, is a transmembrane protein that facilitates uptake of low density lipoproteins by macrophages, resulting in foam cell formation. CXCL16 is found in liver tissue2 and influences the uptake, subcellular localization, and cytokine profile induced by D oligonucleotides. 3 CXCL16 may play a pro- inflammatory role in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), particularly Crohns disease.
  • Synonyms

    chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16; SRPSOX; CXCLG16; SR-PSOX; CXCL16; CXC chemokine ligand 16; Scavenger receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein; Small-inducible cytokine B16; Transmembrane chemokine CXCL16;

  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads
  • GMP Proteins
  • Cell & Tissue Lysates
  • Canine
  • Cynomolgus
  • Human
  • Mouse
  • Rat
  • E.coli
  • HEK293
  • HEK293F
  • Human Cell
  • Human cells
  • Human Cells
  • In Vitro Cell Free System
  • Mammalian Cell
  • Mammalian cells
  • Yeast
  • Biotin
  • C
  • hFc
  • His
  • Fc
  • GST
  • His (Fc)
  • Avi
  • His|T7
  • N/A
  • N
Species Cat.# Product name Source (Host) Tag Protein Length Price
Human CXCL16-330H Active Recombinant Human CXCL16, His-tagged Mammalian cells His
Human CXCL16-82H Recombinant Human Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 16 E.coli N/A
Human CXCL16-7648H Recombinant Human CXCL16 protein, His & T7-tagged E.coli His/T7 Ser33~Thr171 (Accession # Q9H2A7)
Human CXCL16-11721H Recombinant Human CXCL16, GST-tagged E.coli GST 45-224a.a.
Human CXCL16-881H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein, His-tagged E.coli N-His Asn30-Pro118
Human CXCL16-3096H Recombinant Human CXCL16 protein, His-tagged E.coli His 46-225 aa
Human CXCL16-1108H Active Recombinant Human CXCL16 protein, His-tagged HEK293 His Met1-Thr224
Human CXCL16-27H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein E.coli 89 amino acid
Human CXCL16-2286HF Recombinant Full Length Human CXCL16 Protein, GST-tagged In Vitro Cell Free System GST 49-273 amino acids
Human CXCL16-34H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein, Biotin-tagged E.coli Biotin
Human CXCL16-162H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein, His-tagged Human cells His
Human CXCL16-2759H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein, His (Fc)-Avi-tagged HEK293 His (Fc)-Avi
Human CXCL16-2957H Recombinant Human CXCL16 protein, Fc-tagged HEK293 Fc Asn 30-Thr 205
Human CXCL16-882H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein, His-tagged HEK293F N-His Asn30-Thr254
Human CXCL16-151H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein, His-tagged Human Cells His
Human CXCL16-2182H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein (Pro49-Pro137), N-GST tagged E.coli N-GST Pro49-Pro137
Human CXCL16-2183H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein (Val52-Lys190), N-His tagged E.coli N-His Val52-Lys190
Human CXCL16-2759H-B Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads HEK293
Human CXCL16-2179H Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein (Asn27-Trp201), C-His tagged Mammalian cells C-His Asn27-Trp201
Mouse Cxcl16-484M Active Recombinant Mouse Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 16, His-tagged Mammalian cells His
Mouse Cxcl16-01M Active GMP Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 Protein, His-Tagged E.coli His
Mouse Cxcl16-7649M Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 protein, His & T7-tagged E.coli His/T7 Val31~Pro241 (Accession # Q8BSU2)
Mouse Cxcl16-153M Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 protein(Met1-Trp201), His-tagged HEK293 C-His Met1-Trp201
Mouse Cxcl16-85M Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 protein E.coli N/A 88
Mouse CXCL16-2545MCL Recombinant Mouse CXCL16 cell lysate Human Cell N/A
Mouse Cxcl16-5253M Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 protein, His-tagged E.coli His 27-198aa
Mouse Cxcl16-2095M Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 Protein, His (Fc)-Avi-tagged HEK293 His (Fc)-Avi
Mouse Cxcl16-284M Active Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 Protein (Asn27-Pro114), N-His tagged, Animal-free, Carrier-free E.coli N-His Asn27-Pro114
Mouse Cxcl16-347M Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 protein, His-tagged Yeast His Asn27-Pro114
Mouse CXCL16-3385M Recombinant Mouse CXCL16 protein, His-tagged HEK293 His Val31~Pro241
Mouse Cxcl16-883M Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 Protein, His-tagged E.coli N-His Val31-Pro241
Mouse Cxcl16-884M Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 Protein, His-tagged E.coli N-His Asn27-Trp201
Mouse Cxcl16-2095M-B Recombinant Mouse Cxcl16 Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads HEK293
Rat Cxcl16-7650R Recombinant Rat Cxcl16 protein, His & T7-tagged E.coli His/T7 Gln46~Pro242 (Accession # Q6AXU5)
Rat CXCL16-1688R Recombinant Rat CXCL16 Protein Mammalian Cell His
Rat Cxcl16-7441R Recombinant Rat Cxcl16 protein(Met1-Ala198), hFc-tagged HEK293 C-hFc Met1-Ala198
Rat CXCL16-1083R Recombinant Rat CXCL16 Protein, His-tagged HEK293 His
Rat CXCL16-1414RCL Recombinant Rat CXCL16 cell lysate Human Cell N/A
Rat CXCL16-1347R Recombinant Rat CXCL16 Protein, His (Fc)-Avi-tagged HEK293 His (Fc)-Avi
Rat CXCL16-1347R-B Recombinant Rat CXCL16 Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads HEK293
Canine CXCL16-259C Recombinant Canine CXCL16, His tagged Human Cell Fc
Canine CXCL16-178C Recombinant Canine CXCL16, Fc tagged Human Cell Fc
Canine CXCL16-842CCL Recombinant Canine CXCL16 cell lysate Human Cell N/A
Cynomolgus CXCL16-253C Recombinant Cynomolgus CXCL16 Protein E.coli N/A
  • Background
  • Quality Guarantee
  • Case Study
  • Involved Pathway
  • Protein Function
  • Interacting Protein
  • Other Resource

What is CXCL16 protein?

CXCL16 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16) gene is a protein coding gene which situated on the short arm of chromosome 17 at locus 17p13. CXCL16 is a small molecule chemokine that belongs to the C-X-C chemokine family, members of which play important roles in cell development, inflammation and immune response. CXCL16 protein has multiple domains, including chemokine domain, mucin-like stem domain, single transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail domain. This unique structure allows it to function both as an adhesion molecule on the cell surface and as a soluble chemokine. The CXCL16 protein is consisted of 254 amino acids and its molecular mass is approximately 27.6 kDa.

What is the function of CXCL16 protein?

CXCL16, by binding to its specific receptor CXCR6, mediates the migration of a variety of immune cells, including T cells, NK cells and macrophages. CXCL16 plays an important role in a variety of biological processes, including inducing immune cell migration to infection or inflammation sites and thus participating in host defense responses; During the inflammatory process, the expression level of CXCL16 increases, and it participates in the regulation of inflammatory response by attracting immune cells. CXCL16 also plays a role in the development of certain cancers, where it can promote the invasion of tumor-associated macrophages and is associated with tumor aggressiveness and prognosis.

CXCL16 Related Signaling Pathway

CXCL16 activates the NF-κB pathway, which influences inflammation and immune responses. CXCL16 can affect cell proliferation and survival through JAK-STAT pathway. CXCL16 can activate the PI3K/AKT pathway, thereby affecting cell survival and migration. CXCL16 can activate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, thereby affecting cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. VEGFR/VEGF signaling pathway: CXCL16 is also involved in angiogenesis, as it can activate the VEGFR/VEGF pathway and promote the formation of new blood vessels. In some cases, CXCL16 can also activate the Notch signaling pathway, which in turn affects cell fate decisions. CXCL16 can also influence cell survival and migration in hypoxic environments through the HIF-1α signaling pathway.

CXCL16 Related Diseases

CXCL16 expression is increased in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. It is involved in tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. CXCL16 has been implicated in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, possibly by influencing angiogenesis and inflammatory responses. CXCL16 is expressed in a variety of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Other diseases include viral infections, kidney diseases, neurological disorders, etc.

CXCL16-mediated intercellular communication creates multiple relationships between various cells.jpg

Fig1. In the tumor, CXCL16-mediated intercellular communication creates multiple relationships between various cells. (Jan Korbecki, 2021)

Bioapplications of CXCL16

Because of its role in a variety of diseases, CXCL16 could be a potential target for new drug development. Research into inhibitors or antagonists of CXCL16 may help treat related diseases. CXCL16's role in regulating immune cell function makes it a strong candidate for the development of immunotherapies against cancer and other immune-related diseases.

High Purity

SDS-PAGE (CXCL16-7648H).jpg

Fig1. SDS-PAGE (CXCL16-7648H)


SDS-PAGE (CXCL16-881H).jpg

Fig2. SDS-PAGE (CXCL16-881H)

Case Study 1: Lisa Schielke, 2022

Psoriasis is frequently associated with the metabolic syndrome and occurs more often in obese individuals. In order to understand innate immune mechanisms mediating this inflammatory pattern the researchers investigated expression of the chemokine and lipid scavenger receptor CXCL16 in patients with psoriasis and associated comorbidities. CXCL16 expression was enhanced on all monocyte subsets in psoriatic patients compared with healthy controls. The intensity of CXCL16 expression on monocytes further correlated with their capability to phagocytose oxidized LDL indicating the possibility to transform into foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques. The expression of the CXCL16 receptor, CXCR6, was increased in ILCs and co-expressed with CCR6 but not CCR7 indicating their migratory potential to psoriatic skin or adipose tissue that is characterized by strong CXCL16 and CCL20 expression. This hypothesis was supported by the finding that the percentage of CXCR6 expressing ILCs was alleviated in blood of psoriatic patients.

Correlation of CXCL16 expression on all monocytes.jpg

Fig1. Correlation of CXCL16 expression on all monocytes of psoriatic patients (n=39) and clinical disease activity (PASI), Pearson's correlation.

The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CXCL16 and oxLDL is shown.jpg

Fig2. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CXCL16 and oxLDL is shown.

Case Study 2: Zhenzhen Ma, 2021

Alveolar epithelial cells play an essential role in the initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis, and the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be the early events of pulmonary fibrosis. Recent studies have shown chemokines are involved in the complex process of EMT, and CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) is also associated with many fibrosis-related diseases. However, whether CXCL16 is dysregulated in alveolar epithelial cells and the role of CXCL16 in modulating EMT in pulmonary fibrosis has not been reported. This study found that CXCL16 and its receptor C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 6 (CXCR6) were upregulated in bleomycin induced EMT in human alveolar type II-like epithelial A549 cells. Synergistic effect of CXCL16 and bleomycin in promoting EMT occurrence, extracellular matrix (ECM) excretion, as well as the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines productions in A549 cells were observed, and those biological functions were impaired by CXCL16 siRNA. CXCL16 was further confirmed to regulate EMT in A549 cells via the TGF-β1/Smad3 pathways.

The expression of sCXCL16 in the cell culture supernatant was detected by ELISA.jpg

Fig3. The expression of sCXCL16 in the cell culture supernatant was detected by ELISA.

After co-stimulation of CXCL16 and BLM in A549 cells for 24 h, the mRNA levels of E-cad.jpg

Fig4. After co-stimulation of CXCL16 (200 ng/ml) and BLM (200 μg/ml) in A549 cells for 24 h, the mRNA levels of E-cad.

Cxcl16 involved in several pathways and played different roles in them. We selected most pathways Cxcl16 participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with Cxcl16 were listed below. Creative BioMart supplied nearly all the proteins listed, you can search them on our site.

Pathway Name Pathway Related Protein
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interactionIL18RAP;IFNA14;IL2RGB;CXCL12B;BMPR1AB;CXCR3;LEPR;XCL1;CCL16
Chemokine signaling pathwayCCR8;CXCL8;CCL7;PAK1;KRAS;IL-8;XCL2;PF4;CXCL5

Cxcl16 has several biochemical functions, for example, chemokine activity, low-density lipoprotein receptor activity, scavenger receptor activity. Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by Cxcl16 itself. We selected most functions Cxcl16 had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with Cxcl16. You can find most of the proteins on our site.

Function Related Protein
chemokine activityXCL1;CXCL16;CXCL1;CCL20;CCL34A.3;CCL34B.1;CCL8;CCL27B;IL-8
low-density lipoprotein receptor activityVLDLR;LDLR;LRP6;LRP12;OLR1;CXCL16

Cxcl16 has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. Those interactions were detected by several methods such as yeast two hybrid, co-IP, pull-down and so on. We selected proteins and molecules interacted with Cxcl16 here. Most of them are supplied by our site. Hope this information will be useful for your research of Cxcl16.

Gene Family

Chemokines Cytokines

Research Area

Related articles

Wehr, A; Baeck, C; et al. Pharmacological Inhibition of the Chemokine CXCL16 Diminishes Liver Macrophage Infiltration and Steatohepatitis in Chronic Hepatic Injury. PLOS ONE 9:-(2014).
Wang, L; Sun, SZ; et al. oxLDL-Induced Lipid Accumulation in Glomerular Podocytes: Role of IFN-gamma, CXCL16, and ADAM10. CELL BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS 70:529-538(2014).
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        Q&As (7)

        Ask a question
        How does CXCL16 function as both a chemokine and an adhesion molecule in immune cell recruitment and interaction? 08/28/2022

        CXCL16 acts as both a chemokine and adhesion molecule, guiding immune cell recruitment and facilitating cell-cell interactions.

        How does CXCL16 influence the progression of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases? 03/16/2022

        CXCL16 influences inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, modulating immune cell recruitment and activation.

        What is the impact of CXCL16 in tumor immunology, specifically in tumor infiltration by immune cells? 12/25/2021

        In tumor immunology, CXCL16 facilitates the infiltration of immune cells into tumors, affecting tumor immunity.

        How do alterations in CXCL16 expression or signaling affect renal function and the progression of kidney diseases? 04/21/2021

        Changes in CXCL16 expression impact kidney function, potentially contributing to the development of renal diseases.

        What role does CXCL16 play in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases? 09/13/2019

        CXCL16 plays a role in atherosclerosis by recruiting immune cells to arterial walls, influencing plaque formation.

        What are the mechanisms by which CXCL16 modulates the migration and activation of T cells and dendritic cells? 06/05/2019

        CXCL16 regulates T cell and dendritic cell migration and activation, playing a key role in immune responses.

        How does CXCL16 contribute to the immune response against pathogens, particularly in viral infections? 11/05/2018

        CXCL16 boosts the immune response to pathogens, especially in viral infections, by attracting immune cells.

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