Ctsd

  • Official Full Name

    cathepsin D

  • Overview

    This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. This proteinase, which is a member of the peptidase C1 family, has a specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. Transcription of this gene is initiated from several sites, including one which is a start site for an estrogen-regulated transcript. Mutations in this gene are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
  • Synonyms

    CTSD; cathepsin D; CPSD; CLN10; HEL-S-130P; lysosomal aspartyl protease; lysosomal aspartyl peptidase; ceroid-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 10; epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 130P;

  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Native Proteins
  • Cell & Tissue Lysates
  • Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads
  • Antibody
  • Assay Kits
  • Chicken
  • Cricetulus Griseus
  • Cynomolgus
  • Human
  • Mouse
  • Rat
  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Zebrafish
  • E.coli
  • HEK293
  • HEK293F
  • Human Cell
  • Human liver
  • Human Liver
  • Human Plasma
  • In Vitro Cell Free System
  • Mammalian Cell
  • Mammalian cells
  • Rabbit
  • Wheat Germ
  • C
  • His
  • GST
  • GST|His
  • His (Fc)
  • Avi
  • His|GST
  • His|SUMO
  • N/A
  • N
Species Cat.# Product name Source (Host) Tag Protein Length Price
Human CTSD-1649H Active Recombinant Human CTSD, His-tagged Mammalian cells His
Human CTSD-26411TH Active Native Human Cathepsin D protein Human Liver N/A
Human CTSD-5325D Active Native Human CTSD protein Human liver N/A
Human CTSD-189H Active Native Human Cathepsin D Human Plasma N/A
Human CTSD-04H Active Recombinant Human CTSD protein, His-tagged HEK293 His 21-412aa
Human CTSD-1648H Active Native Human Cathepsin D Human Liver N/A
Human CTSD-218H Recombinant Human CTSD, His-tagged HEK293 His
Human CTSD-26213TH Recombinant Human CTSD E.coli N/A
Human CTSD-207H Recombinant Human CTSD, His-tagged, C13&N15 Labeled HEK293 His
Human CTSD-90H Recombinant Human Cathepsin D E.coli N/A
Human CTSD-2103H Recombinant Human CTSD Protein, GST-tagged Wheat Germ GST
Human CTSD-11684H Recombinant Human CTSD, GST-tagged E.coli GST C-term-354a.a.
Human CTSD-6918H Recombinant Human CTSD, His tagged HEK293 His Met 1-Leu 412
Human CTSD-522H Recombinant Human CTSD protein, His-tagged HEK293F His
Human CTSD-854H Recombinant Human CTSD Protein, GST-His-tagged E.coli GST/His
Human CTSD-1735HCL Recombinant Human CTSD cell lysate Human Cell N/A
Human CTSD-1058H Recombinant Human CTSD Protein (Leu21-Leu412), C-His tagged Mammalian cells C-His Leu21-Leu412
Human CTSD-877H Recombinant Human CTSD Protein, His-tagged HEK293F N-His Leu21-Leu412
Human CTSD-2752H Recombinant Human CTSD Protein, His (Fc)-Avi-tagged HEK293 His (Fc)-Avi
Human CTSD-2757H Recombinant Human CTSD protein, His-tagged E.coli His 67-403aa
Human CTSD-1884H Recombinant Human CTSD Protein (Arg23-Gln161), N-His tagged E.coli N-His Arg23-Gln161
Human CTSD-2582H Recombinant Human CTSD protein(71-410 aa), C-His-tagged E.coli C-His 71-410 aa
Human CTSD-2758H Recombinant Human CTSD protein, GST-tagged E.coli GST 67-403aa
Human CTSD-2341HF Recombinant Full Length Human CTSD Protein, GST-tagged In Vitro Cell Free System GST 412 amino acids
Human CTSD-786H Recombinant Human CTSD Protein, His-tagged HEK293 His 412
Human CTSD-2752H-B Recombinant Human CTSD Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads HEK293
Human CTSD-27858TH Native Human CTSD N/A
Mouse Ctsd-6760M Recombinant Mouse Ctsd protein, His-tagged E.coli His Pro66~Leu410 (Accession # P18242)
Mouse Ctsd-280M Recombinant Mouse Ctsd, His tagged Human Cell His
Mouse CTSD-3023MCL Recombinant Mouse CTSD cell lysate Human Cell N/A
Mouse Ctsd-5636M Recombinant Mouse Ctsd Protein (Ile21-Leu410), C-His tagged Mammalian cells C-His Ile21-Leu410
Mouse Ctsd-2369M Recombinant Mouse Ctsd Protein, His-tagged HEK293 His
Mouse CAB11522RM Rabbit Anti-Mouse Cathepsin D Monoclonal Antibody Rabbit N/A
Rat Ctsd-6761R Recombinant Rat Ctsd protein, His-tagged E.coli His Lys54~Asp163 (Accession # P24268)
Rat Ctsd-6762R Recombinant Rat Ctsd protein, His & GST-tagged E.coli His/GST His120~Leu407 (Accession # P24268)
Cricetulus Griseus CTSD-435C Recombinant Cricetulus Griseus CTSD Protein (65-408 aa), His-SUMO-tagged E.coli His/SUMO 65-408 aa
Cynomolgus CTSD-429C Recombinant Cynomolgus CTSD Protein, His-tagged HEK293 His
Rhesus Macaque CTSD-1088R Recombinant Rhesus monkey CTSD Protein, His-tagged Mammalian Cell His
Rhesus Macaque CTSD-913R Recombinant Rhesus Macaque CTSD Protein, His (Fc)-Avi-tagged HEK293 His (Fc)-Avi
Rhesus Macaque CTSD-913R-B Recombinant Rhesus Macaque CTSD Protein Pre-coupled Magnetic Beads HEK293
Zebrafish CTSD-9232Z Recombinant Zebrafish CTSD Mammalian Cell His
Chicken CTSD-6732C Recombinant Chicken CTSD Mammalian Cell His
Kit-0264 Cathepsin D Inhibitor Screening Kit N/A
  • Background
  • Quality Guarantee
  • Case Study
  • Involved Pathway
  • Protein Function
  • Interacting Protein
  • Other Resource
CTSD-9.jpg

Fig1. Role of cath-D in cancer progression. (Emmanuelle Liaudet-Coopman, 2006)

What is CTSD protein?

CTSD (cathepsin D) gene is a protein coding gene which situated on the short arm of chromosome 11 at locus 11p15. This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. This proteinase, which is a member of the peptidase C1 family, has a specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The CTSD protein is consisted of 412 amino acids and its molecular mass is approximately 44.6 kDa.

What is the function of CTSD protein?

CTSD is an aspartate protease, which mainly exists in lysosomes. CTSD is one of the main protein-degrading enzymes in lysosomes, and is involved in the degradation and renewal of proteins in cells. It is also involved in the regulation of autophagy and apoptosis. In addition, CTSD can degrade MHC-II molecules, thereby affecting immune processes such as antigen presentation and T cell activation.

CTSD-10.jpg

Fig2. Role of cath-D in apoptosis induction. (Emmanuelle Liaudet-Coopman, 2006)

CTSD Related Signaling Pathway

CTSD plays an important role in apoptosis, influencing cell fate and survival by regulating apoptosis-related signaling pathways, such as Bcl-2 family proteins. By mediating lysosomal function, it affects the development of cells and diseases, including tumors and neurological diseases.

CTSD Related Diseases

Mutations in this gene play a causal role in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-10 and may be involved in the pathogenesis of several other diseases, including breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer's disease.

Bioapplications of CTSD

As a potential therapeutic target, CTSD protein is also currently being used in research for disease diagnosis and treatment. Diseases include tumors, autoimmune diseases and neurological diseases.

High Purity

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CTSD-2.jpg

Fig2. Activity Data. (CTSD-877H)

Case study 1: Eleonora Secomandi, 2022

Neuroblastoma is a malignant extracranial solid tumor arising from the sympathoadrenal lineage of the neural crest and is often associated with N-MYC amplification. Cathepsin D has been associated with chemoresistance in N-MYC-overexpressing neuroblastomas. Increased EGFR expression also has been associated with the aggressive behavior of neuroblastomas. This work aimed to understand the mechanisms linking EGFR stimulation and cathepsin D expression with neuroblastoma progression and prognosis.

Low CTSD expression was associated with poor clinical outcome. CTSD expression was negatively correlated with CCNB2, CCNA2, CDK1 and CDK6 genes involved in cell cycle division. Cathepsin D overexpression decreased the proliferative potential of neuroblastoma cells through downregulation of the pro-oncogenic MAPK signaling pathway. EGFR stimulation downregulated cathepsin D expression, thus favoring cell cycle division.

CTSD-3.jpg

Fig1. Western blot of cathepsin D in SH-SH5Y Sham, 486 (KD-CD) and Over CD clones.

CTSD-4.jpg
Fig2. Western blot of phospho-ERK 1/2 and total protein in Sham cell homogenates at different time points (24, 48, and 72 h) in the presence/absence of EGF.

Case study 2: Yuan Li, 2017

This study aimed to investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the proliferation and migration ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, real-time cell analyzer and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. Cell migration was detected by wound-healing and transwell assay. AGEs significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in a time-and dose-dependent way.

AGEs reduced cathepsin D (CTSD) expression in a time-dependent way. Overexpression of wild-type CTSD significantly decreased the ratio of LC 3 II/I as well as p62 accumulation induced by AGEs, but overexpression of catalytically inactive mutant CTSD had no such effects. Only overexpression of wild-type CTSD could restore the proliferation of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs.
This study found that AGEs inhibited the proliferation and migration in HUVECs and promoted autophagic flux, which in turn played a protective role against AGEs-induced cell injury. CTSD, in need of its catalytic activity, may promote proliferation in AGEs-treated HUVECs independent of the autophagy-lysosome pathway.

CTSD-5.jpg

Fig3. CTSD was successfully transfected into cells. Green cells were labelled with green fluorescent protein, which indicated the transfection was successful.

CTSD-6.jpg
Fig4. The protein expression of LC3-II, LC3-I, p62, and CTSD were analyzed using western blotting after CTSD was transfected into cells.
CTSD-7.jpg

Fig1. In GBM cells, inhibition of CTSD blocked the fusion of autophagosome and lysosome which decreased the formation of autolysosome. (Wang Zheng, 2020)

CTSD-8.jpg

Fig2. A summary of CathD -induced activation of the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways, and cellular functions in HOMECs. (Md Zahidul I Pranjol, 2018)

Ctsd involved in several pathways and played different roles in them. We selected most pathways Ctsd participated on our site, such as Adaptive Immune System, Ceramide signaling pathway, Collagen degradation, which may be useful for your reference. Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with Ctsd were listed below. Creative BioMart supplied nearly all the proteins listed, you can search them on our site.

Pathway Name Pathway Related Protein
Adaptive Immune SystemNA;FBXO3;ASB8;VPRBP;CDKN1A;TREML2;KLHL21;RACGAP1;BLK
Ceramide signaling pathwayDERL3;EGF;CTSD;CRADD;PAWR
Collagen degradationCOL9A1;MMP8;MMP19;COL25A1;CTS7;MGC174155;COL17A1;CTSD;LOC100686744
Degradation of the extracellular matrixMGC174857;CAPNS1;CTSL2;ADAMTS8;ADAM8;CTSD;COL23A1;MMP15;MMP13
Direct p53 effectorsBCL2L14;TADA2B;CSE1L;AIFM2;DGCR8;DUSP1;FOXA1;SCN3B;RNF144B
Extracellular matrix organizationLOXL3;FBLN1;BSG;COL16A1;VCANB;CTSLL;P3H2;MMP15;MMP12
Immune SystemTRIM11;RAP1GAP2;IFI30;OSBPL1A;PANX1B;CD300A;DEFB4B;SIGLEC15;IFIT10
LKB1 signaling eventsMAP2;MARK4;CDC37;SIK3;STK11IP;CTSD;MARK2

Ctsd has several biochemical functions, for example, aspartic-type endopeptidase activity, protein binding. Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by Ctsd itself. We selected most functions Ctsd had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with Ctsd. You can find most of the proteins on our site.

Function Related Protein
aspartic-type endopeptidase activitySPPL2;ASPRV1;ATP6AP2;PSEN2;CTSE;PGC;NRIP2;ANK2B;Ren1
protein bindingMFAP1;MLST8;TBC1D1;NAA35;GGN;KLF10;IL24;DLGAP4;VBP1

Ctsd has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. Those interactions were detected by several methods such as yeast two hybrid, co-IP, pull-down and so on. We selected proteins and molecules interacted with Ctsd here. Most of them are supplied by our site. Hope this information will be useful for your research of Ctsd.

env; APP; hly; HBA1; MAPK1; purT; q7cjw2_yerpe; leuD; RASSF10; ere_dna; RASSF9; cona_canen; H2AFX; VCAM1; ATP6V1A; RASSF7

  • Q&As
  • Reviews

Q&As (6)

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What is the relationship between CTSD proteins and cognitive function? 05/02/2022

There is an association between CTSD proteins and cognitive function. In some neurodegenerative diseases, abnormal accumulation and deposition of CTSD proteins may affect neuronal signaling and synaptic function, leading to a decline in cognitive function.

What is the relationship between changes in CTSD protein levels and disease? 12/13/2021

In some neurodegenerative diseases, levels of the CTSD protein may change. For example, people with Alzheimer's disease may have elevated levels of the CTSD protein. These changes may help in the diagnosis of the disease and in the assessment of the course of the disease.

For people with cognitive decline, how do you assess their CTSD protein levels? 01/19/2021

For people with cognitive decline, their CTSD protein levels can be assessed by a blood or cerebrospinal fluid sample. This evaluation can help doctors understand whether the cause of cognitive decline is related to a neurodegenerative disease.

How can treatment be used to alter the level or function of the CTSD protein? 11/14/2020

It is currently no treatment that directly targets the CTSD protein. However, some medications can reduce symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases, such as cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, which can increase acetylcholine levels in synapses, which can improve cognitive function.

Is CTSD protein involved in Parkinson's disease? 02/08/2020

People with Parkinson's disease may have reduced levels of the CTSD protein. This decrease may be associated with neuronal death and impaired synaptic function. In addition, CTSD protein may also be associated with motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease.

In which diseases does the CTSD protein play a role? 12/11/2019

CTSD proteins play a role in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. It may change in these diseases, leading to structural alterations and impaired signaling of neuronal synapses.

Customer Reviews (3)

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Reviews
07/12/2021

    Good at western-blot experiments.

    03/28/2021

      In experiments, the biocompatibility performed well.

      03/02/2021

        The experimental conditions are broad, and the experimental results are accurate and repeatable.

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