CD38 (cluster of differentiation 38), also known as cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase, is a transmembrane glycoprotein found on the surface of some immune cells including plasma cells, activated or immature T and B cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells. CD38 participates in cell adhesion, signal transduction and calcium signaling. It is expressed at high levels in the plasma cell tumor, prostate cancer, stomach cancer, and neuroblastoma. CD38 is used as one of the plasma cell markers and its ligand is CD31 molecules.
CD38 involved in several pathways and played different roles in them. We selected most pathways CD38 participated on our site, such as Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, Metabolic pathways, Calcium signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with CD38 were listed below. Creative BioMart supplied nearly all the proteins listed, you can search them on our site.
CD38 has several biochemical functions, for example, NAD(P)+ nucleosidase activity, NAD+ nucleosidase activity, phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity. Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by CD38 itself. We selected most functions CD38 had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with CD38. You can find most of the proteins on our site.
CD38 has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. Those interactions were detected by several methods such as yeast two hybrid, co-IP, pull-down and so on. We selected proteins and molecules interacted with CD38 here. Most of them are supplied by our site. Hope this information will be useful for your research of CD38.
Schubert, RD; Hu, Y; et al. IFN-beta Treatment Requires B Cells for Efficacy in Neuroautoimmunity. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 194:2110-2116(2015).
Franquesa, M; Mensah, FK; et al. Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Abrogate Plasmablast Formation and Induce Regulatory B Cells Independently of T Helper Cells. STEM CELLS 33:880-891(2015).
What are the challenges and future directions in CD38 research?
CD38 research faces several challenges and offers exciting future directions. One challenge is deciphering the precise molecular mechanisms by which CD38 modulates cellular processes and interacts with other proteins. Additionally, understanding the context-dependent functions of CD38 in different cell types and disease conditions requires further investigation. Future directions include exploring the therapeutic potential of CD38 inhibitors in combination with other treatment modalities, investigating the role of CD38 in the tumor microenvironment, and advancing our understanding of the dynamic regulation of CD38 expression and activity. Such advancements will pave the way for personalized medicine approaches targeting CD38 in various diseases.
What are the functions and mechanisms of protein CD38 in biological systems?
Protein CD38 is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a crucial role in various biological processes. Its main function is the hydrolysis of NAD+ to generate ADP-ribose, leading to the production of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and ADP-ribose (ADPR) as intracellular calcium signaling molecules. CD38 is involved in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses. Its mechanisms of action include modulation of intracellular signaling pathways, such as cADPR-mediated calcium release and involvement in apoptotic pathways through ADPR.
Does CD38 interact with other proteins or signaling pathways?
Yes, CD38 exhibits interactions with several proteins and signaling pathways. For instance, CD38 is involved in the regulation of calcium signaling by interacting with calcium channels and receptors. It also interacts with other proteins in the NAD+ metabolism pathway, such as NAD+-consuming enzymes and NAD+ synthesizing enzymes. Furthermore, CD38 can modulate immune responses by interacting with immune cell receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. Understanding these protein-protein interactions and their functional consequences is essential for comprehending the broader role of CD38 in cellular processes and disease pathogenesis.
What are the current areas of research focus regarding CD38?
Current research on CD38 encompasses various aspects. One area of focus is elucidating the role of CD38 in disease pathogenesis, including its involvement in cancer progression, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Researchers are also investigating the potential of CD38 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in different diseases. Additionally, efforts are being made to identify novel therapeutic targets within the CD38 signaling pathway and develop more effective and specific CD38 inhibitors. Understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms and functional consequences of CD38 will contribute to the development of targeted therapies and precision medicine approaches.
Are there any genetic variations or polymorphisms associated with CD38 expression or function?
Yes, genetic variations in the CD38 gene have been identified, and some of these variations have been associated with altered CD38 expression or function. For example, certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD38 gene have been linked to changes in CD38 enzyme activity and NAD+ metabolism. These genetic variations can influence immune responses, susceptibility to certain diseases, and response to therapies targeted at CD38.
In which cell types is CD38 expressed and considered important?
CD38 is widely expressed in various cell types, including immune cells (such as lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, etc.), neuronal cells, endothelial cells, and several others. It is especially important in immune cells, where it plays a critical role in immune responses, such as T cell activation, B cell differentiation, and antibody production. CD38 expression in neuronal cells has been linked to neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. Additionally, CD38 expression in endothelial cells is associated with regulating vascular function and inflammation.
What are the potential therapeutic implications of targeting CD38?
Targeting CD38 has gained significant attention in the development of therapeutic strategies. CD38 inhibitors, such as monoclonal antibodies, have shown promising results in the treatment of hematological malignancies, particularly multiple myeloma. These inhibitors block CD38 enzymatic activity, leading to impaired tumor cell growth, enhanced immune responses, and induction of cell death. Moreover, CD38-targeted therapies have also been explored for autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders. Further research is underway to optimize CD38-targeted therapies and expand their applications in different disease settings.