||Thrombomodulin (TM) is an integral membrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. Its discovery by Esmon and Owen has focused attention on the importance of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. TM serves as a cofactor for protein C activation by forming a 1:1 stoichiometric complex with thrombin (Kd=10-10M), which accelerates the rate of protein C activation by 1000-fold relative to the rate with thrombin alone. In addition to facilitating protein C activation, the binding of thrombin to TM drastically alters the procoagulant activity of thrombin. When bound to TM, thrombin no longer clots fibrinogen, activates factor V, inactivates protein S or triggers platelet aggregation. TM is a single chain protein composed of 5 distinct domains. The domain structure of TM is similar to the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. A short cytoplasmic domain containing a free cysteine is located at the COOH-terminal end and is joined by a membrane spanning region to an O-glycosylation rich domain. The latter is followed by an epidermal growth factor (EGF) homology region and the NH2-terminal hydrophobic domain. The EGF homology region contains 6 EGF-like domains and contains the binding sites for both thrombin and protein C.
||Endothelial cell membrane, traces of degraded, yet functional, TM detected in human urine and plasma.
||20 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, 0.05% PDOC, pH 7.4
||Protein C activation assay
||>95% by SDS-PAGE. NOT tissue/cell culture grade. Not tested for endotoxin.
||Extinction coefficient:8.8, Isoelectric point:2.5, Structure:Single chain, NH2-terminal hydrophobic domain, six EGF domains, one O-glycosylation rich domain, one transmembrane domain, COOH-terminal cytoplasmic domain