||Autophagy is a critical cellular process that involves the degradation and digestion of intracellular components by the lysosome. This process not only enables cells to efficiently mobilize and recycle cellular constituents, but also prevents the accumulation of damaged organelles, misfolded proteins, and invading microorganisms. Autophagy is a multi-step process that begins with the sequestration of cytoplasmic organelles and proteins. These cellular components are sequestered by a double membrane, forming an autophagosome. The autophagosome then fuses with a lysosome to form an autolysosome, where the cellular material is then degraded. Normal autophagy is essential for survival, differentiation, development, and homeostasis. Dysregulation of autophagy has been implicated in cancer, infection, aging, and degenerative diseases. While autophagy most often acts to promote cell survival in response to stress, it can also promote cell death. The relationship between autophagy and apoptosis is complex. The two pathways share common stimuli and components, and can regulate the activity of each other. However, the specific factors and mechanisms that dictate the choice between autophagy and apoptosis remain unclear.