||Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins stimulate vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. They are part of the system that restores the oxygen supply to tissues when blood circulation is inadequate. The normal function of VEGF proteins is to create new blood vessels during embryonic development, new blood vessels after injury, muscle following exercise, and new vessels (collateral circulation) to bypass blocked vessels. The VEGF family has six members, including VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-E, and Placental Growth Factor (PGF). Activity of VEGF-A, as its name implies, has been studied mostly on cells of the vascular endothelium, although it does have effects on a number of other cell types (e.g., stimulation monocyte/macrophage migration, neurons, cancer cells, kidney epithelial cells). In vitro, VEGF-A has been shown to stimulate endothelial cell mitogenesis and cell migration. VEGF-A is also a vasodilator and increases microvascular permeability and was originally referred to as vascular permeability factor (VPF).