Serine Proteases and Regulators
- Granzyme B
- Protein C
- Protein S
About Serine Proteases and Regulators
Serine proteases and regulators are an important class of proteases and regulatory proteins that play key roles in biological processes. Serine proteases are important protein hydrolases with serine as their active center that act by hydrolyzing peptide bonds of substrates. Regulatory proteins, on the other hand, influence the function of serine proteases by controlling their activation or inhibition. This class of proteases is prevalent in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Serine proteases account for one-third of all known proteolytic enzymes, and these enzymes can be subdivided into several categories, including trypsin, pancreatic lactase, elastase, thrombin, fibrinolytic enzymes, tissue fibrinogen activator, and neurogenic serine proteases. Members of the serine proteases have diverse functions, expression patterns, and relationships to health and disease. Some proteases are active in the coagulation cascade and the complement pathway, whereas others are found exclusively in granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells (granzymes) or mast cells with trypsin-like specificity (trypsins). Secreted tissue Kallikreins are cancer markers, while transmembrane proteases such as Corin and Enterokinase are transforming enzymes. Their protein hydrolyzing activity is regulated by different serines and receptors such as uPAR and HAIs.
Functions of the Serine Proteases and Regulators
Serine proteases and regulators play key roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Here are some common functional applications:
- Coagulation and Hemostasis
Some serine proteases (e.g., thrombin and fibrinolytic enzymes) are involved in the formation and dissolution of blood clots, which are essential for maintaining normal coagulation and hemostasis processes. For example, coagulation factor 10 and coagulation factor 11 are serine proteases, and if these enzymes are deficient, the body will suffer from coagulation defects, which may lead to diseases such as hemophilia. In addition, the fibrinolytic enzyme with coagulation function also belongs to serine, which has a unique dissolving effect on the formation of fibrin clots.
- Immune System Regulation
Serine proteases and regulatory proteins play important roles in the immune system, such as regulating immune responses to inflammation, immune cell activation, and signaling.
- Digestive Enzymes
In the digestive system, the pancreas secretes three types of enzymes: pancreatic rennet, trypsin, and elastase. Among them, pancreatic rennet is the most typical serine protease, and its function is to be able to break the peptide bond at the carboxyl group of aromatic amino acids to break down proteins. Trypsin is mainly used in the small intestine to break down proteins into peptide bonds, and then peptide bonds are broken down into amino acids that can be absorbed directly by the body; elastase is mainly used in connective tissues to break down elastic proteins in connective tissues.
- Tumor Biomarkers
Abnormal expression of certain serine proteases and their regulatory proteins during tumor growth, metastasis, and transformation can be used as potential biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and treatment.
- Parasitic Disease Treatment
Certain parasitic diseases such as malaria and schistosomiasis, in which serine proteases play an important role in the production and survival of the worms, may make Serine protease inhibitors potential drugs for the treatment of these diseases.
Application Progress of the Serine Proteases and Regulators
At present, whether from the structure, function, or activation mechanism, the research of serine protease has been very deep, in the application of serine, its degradation, digestion, and coagulation effect is the most significant, so serine in the field of medicine is the most widely used. Serine protease prepared from different organisms has different effects and structures, and the serine protease prepared at present is mainly extracted from mammals, its main effects are digestion and blood coagulation, but the effects of serine proteic acid on the nervous system are also in the focus of research. With the development of science and technology and the deepening of medical research, the effect of serine protease on the nervous system will be more and more clear. The preparation of serine protease can be simplified by cloning technology, and the field of its use will be clarified with further research.
Research Tools for Serine Proteases and Regulators
Creative BioMart is a leading company specializing in life sciences research tools and services, providing researchers with serine proteases and regulators-related products and customized services. Product types include but are not limited to, recombinant proteins, cell and tissue lysates, protein pre-coupled beads, antibodies, chromatography reagents, assay kits, and other products. We also offer customization services to meet specific research needs. In addition, we provide serine proteases and regulators-related pathways, protein functions, interacting proteins, articles, research areas, and other resources to support researchers in their studies. Click to view all related molecules/targets and research reagents. Please get in touch with us with any questions or requests.