SARS-CoV-2 Proteins and Their Target Proteins


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins and Their Target Proteins

The COVID-19 outbreak has caused large numbers of death, as well as social and economic chaos worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 virus is the causative agent of this respiratory disease.

The scientific community has known that SARS-CoV-2 binds to host cell receptors through its surface spike (S) proteins and is endocytosed into cells through clathrin-mediated membrane fusion. The relationship and affinity between the host cell receptor and the virus surface protein determine the infectivity and cytophilic characteristics of the virus. The pathogenicity and invading of the virus are related to the type and function of the host cell. Crystal structure analysis confirmed that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 S protein, and the affinity of the two is 10-20 times that of SARS-CoV and ACE2, which is the reason of SARS-CoV-2 super infectivity.

So far, no clinically available antiviral drugs have been developed for SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, or MERS-CoV. Some studies used affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis that have identified hundreds of protein interactions between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human proteins, including DNA replication (Nsp1), epigenetic and gene expression regulators (Nsp5, Nsp8, Nsp13, E), vesicle trafficking (Nsp6, Nsp7, Nsp10, Nsp13, Nsp15, Orf3a, E, Orf8), lipid modification (Spike), RNA processing and regulation (Nsp8, N), ubiquitin ligases (Orf10), signaling (Nsp8, Nsp13, N, Orf9b), nuclear transport machinery (Nsp9, Nsp15, Orf6), cytoskeleton (Nsp1, Nsp13), mitochondria (Nsp4, Nsp8, Orf9c), and extracellular matrix (Nsp9). Results from data analysis suggested that the viral proteins connect to a wide array of biological processes, including protein trafficking, translation, transcription, and ubiquitination regulation.

A total of 332 high confidence SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been identified. Among these, using a combination of a systematic chemoinformatic drug search with a pathway centric analysis, researchers have uncovered 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by close to 70 different drugs and compounds, including FDA approved drugs, compounds in clinical trials as well as preclinical compounds. Additionally, this proteomic/chemoinformatic analysis gives these potential therapeutic perturbations a mechanistic context.

Creative BioMart has collected many SARS-CoV-2 related proteins and druggable target proteins, which can help you discover antiviral therapies against SARS-CoV-2 and other deadly coronavirus strains.

For more protein product information or custom protein expression service, please feel free to contact us.

Customized expression service of mutant SARS-CoV-2 protein

A terrible mutant strain of the new coronavirus was discovered in the United Kingdom. The binding affinity of the S protein to the human ACE2 receptor has increased by 1,000 times, and the transmission speed is as high as 70% compared with the previous strain; it soon became the main strain in the London area. This new strain has 23 special mutations and is named subtype B.1.1.7.

Estimates suggest that circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages accumulate nucleotide mutations at a rate of about 1-2 mutations per month. The B.1.1.7 lineage carries a larger than the usual number of virus genetic changes. The accrual of 14 lineage-specific amino acid replacements prior to its detection is, to date, unprecedented in the global virus genomic data for the COVID-19 pandemic.

The epidemiological significance of the replication characteristics, transmission characteristics, and impact on vaccination of this B.1.1.7 strain is still unclear. In addition to the obvious increase in the spread of the new strain, there are other dangers waiting to be verified.

Virus mutation is a natural phenomenon that has always occurred. The new coronavirus mutant strain will cause the speed of transmission to increase, which may be due to the increased binding affinity of the mutant virus strain S protein to the human ACE2 receptor. The mutation helps the virus escape the host's immune response, and also leads to antigen drift, making the COVID-19 as difficult to prevent as flu.

Creative BioMart provides customized expression services, especially for mutant SARS-CoV-2 protein. Single mutant, multiple mutants, deletion, or insert mutant can be customized according to customer requirements. We currently have a batch of RBD mutant products (Find product information on RBD Mutant Proteins). If the mutant you need is not on the product list, you can contact us for inquiries or customize it as required.

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